The State of Health: Balancing Power, Resources, and Expertise and the Birth of the Medical Profession in the Russian Empire
At the start of the nineteenth century, the government of Alexander I embarked on an ambitious task of reforming the imperial state on the most modern foundations. The reformers had a range vague vision of the future state as a single mechanism assembled out of rationality identified individual functions. It was to replace the older imperial state composed of an assortment of self-governing blocs of territorial or 'thematic' responsibilities. Medicine was identified as one of the main types of modern expert knowledge that should be used in the reconfigiration of the state, which explains the centality of it to the reforms, and suprisingly chaotic history of finding a proper arrangement for medical expertise within the new government structure.