Социально-экономические эффекты трудовой миграции из малых городов России
The article examines labor migration from small Russian towns: prevalence of the phenomenon, the direction and duration of trips, spheres of employment and earnings of migrants, social and economic benefits of migration for households. The representative surveys of households and migrant-workers by a standardized interview were conducted in four selected towns. Authors draw a conclusion about high labor spatial mobility of the population of small towns and existence of positive effects for migrant’s households and the economy of towns themselves. Keywords: small towns, Russian households, labor migration, wages.
The migratory situation in Russia in the 1990-2000th years is considered. Separate types of migration are analysed: repatriation, labor migration, internal migration
Demographic growth is an important factor of migration processes. Nowadays, its influence is best felt in sub-Saharan Africa, where the tempo of demographic growth is the highest in the world. The chapter discusses the impact demographic growth makes specifically on labor migration from Africa to economically developed nations.
The first volume of the series “Demography. Sociology. Economics” is a collaboration of Russian scientists from the Center for Social Demography and Economic Sociology Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation) and Turkish scientists from the Center for Migration Studies, University of Koch (Mr. Istanbul, Republic of Turkey). It presents research papers of young Russian and foreign scientists who took part in the international scientific and practical Summer School "International migration in the post-Soviet space: Challenges, models and effects", which was held at Koç University in Istanbul in June-July 2014. The book reflects the results of theoretical and empirical research of young scientists from eight countries: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Brazil. The book recommendation for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in demographic and migration sphere.
Questions of differentiation of the population on a level of incomes in Republic Mary El are considered. Parameters of a variation and structure of the basic monetary incomes are analyses. Classification of administrative areas on the parameters describing incomes of the population is lead. The analysis of territorial distinctions of the population on levels of incomes is given. For more in-depth study of interrelation of the parameters describing differentiation of incomes of the population of Republic, on everyone allocated cluster are constructed regression models of a degree of influence of the parameters reflecting age structure of the population on a level of monthly average wages, pensions and social payments.
The article describes the main directions of the potential impact on the economy through state regulation of the labor cost. The article also shows the role of socio- economic forecasting and, in particular, the role of forecasting of the labor cost in processes of the public administration.
This chaper refers to the problem of low productivity and weak competitive stand of plants located in small and particulalry small specialized towns as compared to firms in bigger and more diversified locations. The findingds imply that the urban size and density of economic space, as well as its excessive sectoral specialization significantly reduce the firm competitiveness. Yet, the sectoral structure matters: textile and garmet plants in small towms are most vulnerable. Minimal diversification of economic structure and sufficient scale economy at the plant level allow to reduce the negative effects of the urban size.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.