New Instrument of Adolescents’ Peer Interaction Research
For decades, it has been well based on the fundamental theories, we know that peer inter-action it is a key factor for identity formation in young people. However, does this mean that the content of adolescent interactions has stayed the same for the past half a century ago and today are the same? Studies of adolescent peer interaction often struggle to access the subjects’ own meaning-making. Without such informational background, developmental theory lacks the nu-anced understanding of the subjective component of adolescent experiences across various cul-tural and socio-economic contexts. Teenagers sometimes struggle articulating what is important and unimportant within peer interactions, and what are the rules of the interactions are. Any method based on self-reporting to an adult researcher involves potential bias related to the social expectations of the surveyor or interviewer. The purpose of the research presented here is to de-velop a new instrument, a projective method of indirect access to adolescent perceptions of peer culture on terms identified by adolescents themselves. In this study, a group of 14 teenagers aged 13 to 16 were presented a 1960-s film on adolescence. They were asked to select any scenes from the film and remake them in the contemporary context. The resulting script and videos show that the content of adolescent interactions revolves around the relational boundaries, with sex, violence, and interaction with adults serving as background. Conclusions from the the study reflect sensitivity of the fundamental theories describing maturation, but at the same time the ar-ticle describes the changes in the material through which adolescents development occurs.
Home representations in the adaptation of adopted adolescents to the foster families were investigated. 30 parents (5 fathers and 25 mothers, age from 35 to 45) and 30 adolescents (11 girls and 19 boys, age from 14 to 15) participated in the study. The independent variable was home representation, the dependent one – home attachment and family attachment as markers of adolescents’ adaptation to home. The following tools were used: the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire (Nartova-Bochaver et al., 2015), the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (Nartova-Bochaver et al., 2016), Home Attachment Scale (Reznichenko et al., 2016), and Family Allоcentrism Scale scores (Lay et al., 1998). There was revealed that Functionality, Relevance, and Family Allоcentrism Scale were higher in parents than in children whereas Home Attachment scores weren’t. It was shown as well that similarity of the home representations in children and parents impacted on the family attachment but not home attachment. The Relevance of the Home Environment was stronger predictor of the children’s family attachment than Functionality. The applications of the study seem to be helpful in the practical work with foster families and children which could intensify home personalization techniques in children.
The article discusses the problem of the interrelation between possible selves and professional self-determination among high school students. The study analyzed theoretical approaches and empirical studies of possible selves. The main focus – motivational potential of possible selves. According to the empirical research, parameters of possible selves in the category “profession and work” are related (or could be used as predictors) to the effectiveness adolescent’s professional self-determination.
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.
Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.
Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.
Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.
Conclusions and Relevance Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.