Поминальный обряд азиатских эскимосов и современное ритуальное пространство Нового Чаплино и Сиреников
The article examines the practice of feeding ancestors and spirits that is encountered among the Asiatic
Yupik. The most organized and ritualized way of feeding can be seen in the commemoration of the
dead. The author describes in detail the contemporary commemoration ritual of the Asiatic Yupik; he
shows its variations as well as individual traits of the present social and ritual context, in which the
commemoration ritual is performed.
Elena Smilyanskaya. Women’s spiritual leadership in an Old Believer Community at the end of the twentieth century—notes from field observations
Based on extensive field work, this article explores the profound changes wrought by the feminization of priestless Old Believer communities. While literate men were traditionally in charge of religious education, their growing absence in Old Believer communities gave rise to “spiritual mothers” who embraced new interpretations of texts and theological values including the justification of the faith, intercession of saints, and the symbolism of sacred spaces. Spiritual mothers’ interpretation of biblical and hagiographical texts grew increasingly divorced from written texts and Old Believer tradition, offering new interpretations of long-held liturgical and doctrinal norms. This decline of book-centered religiosity among some priestless Old Believers thus resulted in a fusing of ancient and novel interpretations that spiritual mothers used to guide their communities.
The article elucidates a long tradition, represented by some medieval writers, according to which each emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, visiting Rome for coronation, had to receive his crown not from the hands of the pope, but from his bare feet.
The article deals with the elements of ritualized challenge to a fight in ancient Germanic poetic sources, as well as the lexis peculiar to those elements. This allows for reconstruction of verbal and non-verbal actions of the characters.
This article analyzes the peculiarities of Russian legislation on indigenous peoples of North and its application in practice over the past 20 years. Stand development stages of this legislation and its current status, and formulate proposals for improving the natives of legislation and enforcement.
The monograph is devoted to the assessment of population health indicators and comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing on the health of indigenous people of Russian North.
Das Thema dieses Bandes ist der Zusammenhang zwischen dem Phänomen der symbolischen Kommunikation und den gesellschaftlichen Wertesystemen in der Epoche der Vormoderne vom Mittelalter bis zur Französischen Revolution. Ausgehend von der Beobachtung, dass in der Vormoderne der Kommunikation durch demonstrativ-rituelles Handeln (Ritual, Zeremoniell) ein hoher Stellenwert zukam, richtet sich das Interesse auf die Frage, wie in diesem Handeln herrschende Wertevorstellungen zum Ausdruck kamen, wie sich Wertewandel niederschlug, welche Leistung symbolische Kommunikation bei der Etablierung und Stabilisierung, aber auch der Veränderung von Ordnungen und Wertesystemen erbrachte. Mittels zeichenhafter Handlungen kommunizierte die Gesellschaft der europäischen Vormoderne über ihre Bindungen und Verpflichtungen, akzeptierte Rechte und Pflichten. Durch den vielfältigen Nachweis der Planung und einer je spezifischen Konzeption solcher Akte wird unabweisbar, wie bewusst und reflektiert sich Menschen der Vormoderne dieser Kommunikationsarten bedienten, wie rational sie sich die Stabilisierungsleistungen dieser Kommunikation zu Nutze machten, wie subtil sie überdies die Deutung der Zeichen bis hin zur ironischen Verfremdung beherrschten. Es tritt mit anderen Worten eine Reflektiertheit und Rationalität bei der Verwendung symbolischer Handlungen vor Augen, die in der Konsequenz die berühmte Dichotomie Verzauberung – Entzauberung als Charakteristik der Epochendifferenzen zwischen Vormoderne und Moderne problematisiert; eine Differenz, die nicht zuletzt auch aus der vorgeblich geheimnisvollen Welt der Rituale generiert wurde. Akte symbolischer Kommunikation in der europäischen Vormoderne waren bereits entzaubert in dem Sinne, dass mit ihnen sehr bewusst Forderungen und Ansprüche zur Geltung gebracht wurden, die existentiell wichtig waren.
The development of education of indigenous peoples of North, social order, current status and problems.
The article explored the history of Chukotka's people during the late Tsarist and early Soviet periods focusing on regional interaction patterns between indigenous and non-indigenous actors, and their change after the establishment of the new regime. The restriction and ultimate abolition of free trade in the region resulted in dissatisfaction voiced by Chukotka's pre-Soviet elites. Much attention was devoted to individual actors who were members of the regional transcultural elites during the period under study such as Frank, a Luoravetlan (Chukchi) shaman from Uelen and possibly Rytkheu's grandfather, and several non-native traders who integrated into indigenous societies and became part of the elites. The new authorities first compromised and negotiated with these people including them into the Soviet system of self-government, but then opted for excluding the pre-Soviet elites from most regional interactions. The overall policy was inconsistent and had much to do with the major shifts in Soviet politics. The article is based on the less explored indigenous and non-indigenous sources.
In the 1920s - 1940s the indigenous peoples of Chukotka, the northeastern extremity of Asia, were subjugated by the Soviet Union. This article takes a transcultural look at this process and seeks to explore what interactions shaped the region in pre- and early Soviet periods and what was exchanged through these interactions at different times. The cultural flows under study include those of material objects, diseases, language, institutions and ideas. A great deal of attention has been paid to the reception of exchange in indigenous communities, which was reconstructed based on memories and literary works of indigenous people of Eskimo, Chukchi and Even origin. The article aims to incorporate the case of Chukotka, which was subject to “socialist colonization”, into international cultural and social discourse and seeks to test transcultural methodology in a non-capitalist context.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.