Разработка протокола обследования зрительной когнитивной функции у детей с расстройствами аутистического спектра различной этиологии
The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
Heritage Spanish speakers and adult immigrant bilinguals listened to wh-questions with the differential object marker a (quién/a quién ‘who/whoACC’) while their eye movements across four referent pictures were tracked. The heritage speakers were less accurate than the adult immigrants in their verbal responses to the questions, leaving objects unmarked for case at a rate of 18%, but eye movement data suggested that the two groups were similar in their comprehension, with both starting to look at the target picture at the same point in the question and identifying the target sooner with a quién ‘whoACC’ than with quién ‘who’ questions.
Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC. Furthermore, a lack of differences between semantic word categories was consistent with previous suggestion that people with ASC may lack a 'default' lexical-semantic processing mode. These results are discussed with reference to dual-route models of reading.
Topical issues on early childhood mental health are considered in the article. There is a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in early childhood and increase in mental disorders among children in general, which is ahead of a similar increase among adults. At the same time, unjustifiably on children’s mental health little attention is being paid, specialty “children’s psychiatrist” is not reestablished, the number of specialized beds is reduced etc. The data on the frowth of severe mental disorders (endogenous psychoses of the autism group) beginning in early and pre-school age.
Background. Understanding the relations between user perception and aesthetics is crucial for web design. But it is frequent in today’s graphic and media design that rules, established by practitioners even before the advent of Internet and still untested empirically, are taught at design schools and widely used for online interface design. So far, there is no well-established linkage between the in-class recommendations and our empirical knowledge on usability, for which design plays a role just as crucial as web projecting. Will webpages that are better from the designers’ viewpoint perform better in terms of usability? And can one have a list of recommendations tested empirically? This is especially important for large-scale organizational web spaces where design plays a huge role in brand recognition and visual unity. Large web spaces need complex ergonomic assessment both on the level of selected nodes and on that of architecture/navigation. Of many large web spaces, university portals suit best for elaboration and pre-testing of such a methodology, as they serve various publics, contain sub-domains, and often face criticism for their user-unfriendly design and messy structure. Objectives. We aim at creating a two-level usability expert test for a large web space that would be based on design recommendations tested empirically, thus eliminating the necessity of tech-based assessment of newcoming products. In this paper, we elaborate the node-level methodology. For this, basing on leading design literature, we create a page usability index (U-index) for ‘good’ design that provides quantitative measurement for traditional design decisions on the micro- and macro-level of a web page. Then, we test by eye tracking whether ‘better’ design (corresponding to higher U-index values) favors a particular pattern of content consumption – not ‘random search’ but more efficient ‘reading’. Research design. To check whether web design measured qualitatively correlates with perception of web pages as tested by eye tracking, we first define target nodes by collecting the hyperlink structure and constructing web graphs for three web spaces of the biggest universities in the USA and Russia (Harvard University, Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University). For this, we combine web crawling and web analytics. Second, we construct the U-index with the maximum value of 22. Third, to assess user perception of the target web pages, we create a series of tasks on information search and measure three test parameters (number of eye fixations, duration of fixations, and saccade length) and their derivatives, as well as heat maps. To avoid bias in quantitative measurement, we use two eye trackers (one head-fixed, one stationary) to test the results in parallel. Fourth, for finding correlations between U-index and eye-tracking results, descriptive statistics (Spearman’s rho and Cramer’s V) is used. Results. First of all, our results suggest that various types of eye tracking hardware produce very different test results; this implies that eye tracking research always needs pre-testing. Second, we see that heat maps may be very suitable in express assessment of the web design quality, which speaks in favor of preserving some eye tracking tests in the final methodology. Third, we see substantial difference between Russian universities and Harvard: the latter, indeed, shows that features of web design correlate with eye tracking experience of the assessors, while for the Russian university websites, even after their repeated attempts of redesign, it remains unclear whether web design contributes to better user experience. For Harvard, the web pages with a higher usability index tend to facilitate ‘reading’ instead of ‘search’. Fourth, micro-level elements of the layout seem to contribute more to the general index and, thus, may deserve bigger attention of web designers.
Understanding the mechanisms of visual perception is important in the context of both media research and its applications in design practice. Within the functional approach to interface design, eye tracking is an established method to analyze interface efficacy. At the same time, in today's media design, many rules have been established by practitioners and remain untested. In this mixed-method study, we combine web crawling, web analytics and heat map analysis based on eye tracking, and qualitative usability analysis of composite-graphic model of a website. We check whether eye tracking test results (numeric data and heat map analysis) correlate to usability of key pages of a large website, as measured qualitatively according to recommendations of leading design literature. Among large web spaces, university website clusters represent a special type and suit well for our analysis, as they unite very different publics and are multi-task. We elaborate and pre-test the methodology on three sites of leading universities in the USA and Russia (Harvard University, Moscow State University and St.Petersburg State University). Our results suggest that there is no direct link between design-based elements of page usability and numeric eye tracking data, but heat maps show correlation with design quality; this means we need to continue checking the suggested methodology on larger number of assessors.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.