Динамика совокупных доходов и субъективного восприятия материального положения российских женщин в первые годы после рождения ребенка
The paper concerns systematic differences in the wages of women with children and childless women, or «motherhood penalty», in modern Russia. The study bases on the 23rd wave of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS HSE). The authors employ a two-step model, the first stage of which uses a binary logistic regression to measure the selectivity of maternity, while the second reveals the effect of maternity status on the average monthly salary of women, adjusting for the observed selectivity. The obtained estimates indicate an average motherhood penalty of approximately 4% with a significant differentiation by women’s education level. The authors conclude that high-educated women face 1,5 times higher penalty, and also receive it earlier: the difference in salaries of childless women and mothers with higher education appears after the first birth, and among women without higher education this phenomena is observed only after the second birth. In conclusion, the authors discuss the limitations of the presented analysis and indicate possible directions for future research on this topic.
The legislation of the Russian Federation, along with international normative legal acts, clearly establishes the rights of women aimed at legal protection of their position in public relations, however, traditional ideas about the social roles of men and women constitute an obstacle to the full enjoyment of rights and freedoms. So, in the state civil service of the Russian Federation, despite the guarantees provided by part 1 of Article 3 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation to ensure compliance with the principle of gender equality in employment, young applicants still encounter difficulties in the admission process. In this article, we check and compare whether government agencies are ready to hire women with pregnancy or family responsibilities, as well as young men with family responsibilities. To do this, we organized and conducted an experiment - a telephone survey of contact persons for vacancies posted on the website of the Federal Portal of Management Personnel, which provide reference information on issues of joining the civil service. On the basis of the experiment, a reproduction of gender stereotypes was revealed on the part of civil servants responsible for communication with applicants for filling civil service positions. Young women receive a “penalty for motherhood” even at the stage of joining the government in conditions of “dominant masculinity”.
Questions of differentiation of the population on a level of incomes in Republic Mary El are considered. Parameters of a variation and structure of the basic monetary incomes are analyses. Classification of administrative areas on the parameters describing incomes of the population is lead. The analysis of territorial distinctions of the population on levels of incomes is given. For more in-depth study of interrelation of the parameters describing differentiation of incomes of the population of Republic, on everyone allocated cluster are constructed regression models of a degree of influence of the parameters reflecting age structure of the population on a level of monthly average wages, pensions and social payments.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.