Промышленность Северо-Запада – на пороге роста
This article is dedicated to the problem of the origin of economics. The socio-cultural conditions for the emergence of a new science are considered: the accumulated practical knowledge that accompanied the development of trade, industry, and eventually led to the emergence of a market economy; theoretical and practical knowledge from rich literary sources; the Ancient, Medieval and Modern Time philosophers interest in the ongoing economic processes, posing questions about these processes, revealing the problems of meaning and signifi cance of economic events for the society. The article especially focuses on the Scottish philosophers of the 17 and 18th centuries F. Hutcheson, D. Hume and A. Ferguson, the socio-economic views of the latter being of special importance as well as the views of Adam Smith, whose ideas show close affi nity between the thinkers.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.