The article deals with the problems of education system reform. The author considers the factors of education market development. The US education system's features are characterized. The approaches to research of the structure of the education services market are justified. The problems in content and forms of educational services in logistics are considered.
This paper examines territorial practices of enclosure in the Russian land commune. Using archival research, it explores how the state and territory in the periphery were dialectically co-produced through spatial technologies and public discourses. This work brings a territorial dimension into Russian agrarian scholarship by positioning the imperial rural politics within the context of capitalist land enclosure, thereby introducing complexity into the state-centric Western territory debate.
The article is a critical analysis of the conceptual apparatus in the field of branding and marketing areas. The author discusses the various definitions of «brand» and «brand territory», their diversity and its causes. The aim of this work is clearing the theoretical and practical definition of the territorial brand through the redefinition and extension of the conceptual apparatus. This approach can remove the resulting misunderstanding of the subject activities and «contradictions» in its definition, as well as to expand its theoretical base. Verifying the conceptual and terminological apparatus is not only «theoretical» and «academic» in nature, but has practical importance, which contributes to a more precise determination of the activity of the developer and the customer in the framework of specific project activities and qualitative development of branding in Russia. The article introduces the concept of «brand-identification» to minimize the confusion among the different parts of the same structure - the brand and to address methodological and terminological confusion among developers and customers of regional branding through differencing essentially single and at the same time different parts of the communicative system: the brand and its visual identity (brand identification). The author uses the concept of representation of the territory, image of territory, existing in the minds of consumers and target audience. The image of territory is formed as the scope of project activities through advertising, design, marketing, branding, PR, and is implemented, and reproduced in the information-communicative space of the modern information society. The image of the area and its representation (and the idea of it) is the struggle and unity of the real and the ideal (desired) image of reality. A critical analysis of the attraction’s semiotics by D. Maccannell is the theoretical basis of representation of the territory. It defines a tourist attraction as a sign through the relationship among sight, marker and tourist. The article defines the problem of analyzing the identity (and identification) of the territory with respect to the image areas and not to the real territory, the representation «assigns» identification function, the image becomes inseparable in the popular consciousness from reality. The author draws the conclusion about the necessity of differentiation of concepts «brand» and «brand-identification». The brand of the territory is defined as the representation of areas by means of information and communication tools. Brand-identification of the territory is one of the structural elements, and «attributes» of the brand territory. Representation of territory is a more general concept which can be understanding at the level of conceptualization of place branding, brand identity is more applied, and corresponds to the appropriate level of operationalization.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.