Fertility and Commuting: Evidence Based on First-Birth Rates of Young Working Women
The paper studies how commuting, as a demographic, social and economic process, is linked to fertility. It is hypothesised that daily mobility may have changed marriage and cohabitation propensities and, consequently, birth rates. Fertility is affected by cross-space income flows and by their impact on well-being at municipal level caused by commuting. The empirical evidence reveals common and distinct effects of commuting on fertility of those women who involved in daily mobility and not. Increase in the proportion of commuters is associated with a decrease in first-birth rates for both commuters and non-commuters, as they probably tend to stay childless while interacting with single co-workers, friends, and acquaintances. However, first-birth rates of commuting women increase with growth of individual earnings and the average levels of taxable earnings in places of residence. First-birth rates of non-commuting women increase with individual earnings, but drop with growth of average levels of taxable earnings in the place of residence.
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
This paper analyses the problem of road and transport infrastructure of Moscow. At first, several analytical models of large cities are presented and thus, problems of Moscow are described. Next, a model, describing causal relationships between various problems of the road and transport infrastructure of the city is formulated. Finally, priorities of development are identified, as well as short term and long term actions, aimed at improving the situation in the city.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
This chapter discusses the features of the development of the Russian population and the results of population projections to 2025
Сorporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable business is one of the global trends. Abundance of corporate social responsibility ratings allows us to trace the relationship of this parameter with the financial and organizational results of the company. Current studies in this area are based on qualitative methods and small sample of firms that did not allow to give a clear answer about the presence or absence of the correlation. Correlation analysis of a large number of companies allowed us to reveal the relationship between the financial and organizational results of the company and its social responsibility level. One of the most significant results is the identification of a positive correlation between CSR level of revenue and long-term organization.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.