The article critically regards the evolution of approaches towards social mobility problem starting. The major focus in the context of transition towards post-industrial societies (or, in other terms, informational or network societies) is devoted to the meritocratic principle of social selection, i.e. where talented and well-educated people gain better advantages for social advancements.
In an analysis of research data on three generations of Russians, it was found that the impetus prompted by the social and economic transformation in the early 1990s that opened up opportunities for social and professional growth had been practically exhausted by late 2006, and the tendency toward downward social mobility has become more pronounced. This provides evidence that the social structure of today's Russia is "stagnant" and there are no positive shifts in its dynamics.
Governments of different countries try to lower the entry cost in public procurement in order to decrease pubic spending. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of two entry barriers (entry cost and manipulative strategies chosen by the procurer) on price competition in public procurement auctions. Case study on gasoline procurement in Nizhnii Novgorod shows that lowering entry cost induced by e-procurement reform led to different changes in contract prices depending on the behavior of public procurers.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.