Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words
Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon.
The subject of the analysis is the problem of interrelation of language, understanding, and being in H.-G. Gadamer's Hermeneutics. The analysis is focused on Gadamer's equivocal and ambiguous thesis that "being that can be understood is language". The author reveals the fundamentally ontological background of Gadamer's hermeneutical analysis of language, and critically rethinks the interpretation of this thesis by a prominent researcher Jean Grondin.
Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop Organised by the Laboratory of Behavioural Neurodynamics, Saint Petersburg State University September, 2018. Edited by Olga Shcherbakova, Yury Shtyrov Saint Petersburg, Russia
Language decline in normally-advancing age is most likely seen in problems with lexical retrieval and comprehension. The lexical retrieval problems are most commonly for proper nouns, but may occur as well for other substantives and even idioms. Comprehension problems are more for auditory than written materials, particularly with complex text or in stressful (e.g. noisy) conditions. Discourse patterns may change as well, depending on the nature of the tasks eliciting them. For elderly individuals who display mild cognitive impairment or progress to Alzheimer’s disease, lexical-retrieval problems and comprehension diffi culties can be more severe, and all aspects of language and communication can be impaired in the later stages of Alzheimer’s dementia. Age-related language changes have been explained as languagespecifi c or related to cognitive abilities such as memory and inhibition, and have been attributed to areas of the brain that undergo substantial age-related changes.
In his paper to explore such a problem as an identification of philosophical knowledge is proposed to turn to the H.-G. Gadamer's project of philosophical hermeneutics, within the framework of which there's an attempt to determine the universal specific features in any case of philosophizing. As an interesting point it seems to be a convergence between poetry and philosophy on the grounds of some of their common features itemized in the paper. The convergence with poetry in particular and with work of art in principle allows to distinguish clearly the philosophy from the science and reveal its (philosophy) importance in the context of daily practice for each person. As a distinctive feature of philosophizing is noted its speculative nature, especial work with the concept.
The book contains the results of research in the systemic study of the English language.
The article presents a review of major lexicographic sources in XVIII-XIX centuries from R. Salmasius to F. Kluge featuring slang spoken by German students. It provides a comparative analysis of three lexicons published in XVIII century and sixteen XIX century dictionaries according to main lexicographic parameters with the focus on definitions of entries. They are mostly incomplete, since they lack grammatical and stylistic characteristics, historical and etymological references, examples, verifiable data sources. The common feature of all analysed lexicons is their either brief or comprehensive definitions of entries. Some dictionaries point out a number of meanings, some focus on synonyms of slang words, others give examples of usage. Verifiable data sources can be found only in “Deutsche Studentensprache” (German Students` Language) written by F. Kluge. Incomplete definitions and incoherent systematization of entries is attributed to the fact that most lexicons of that time weren`t compiled by linguists, but by students who wanted to share their experience with future generations and they usually said so in the preface to the dictionary. The analysis of dictionary entries makes it possible to identify lexical and semantic changes that have been taking place over the past two centuries. The study of student slang words in XVIII-XIX centuries has revealed that some of them can be found only in one lexicon, while others have been included in later editions because of their significance in students` life. Though different in scope and content, all analysed dictionaries, considered collectively or separately, are essential in studying the evolution of German students` language which in its turn ensures better understanding of current trends in modern youth slang. Moreover, definitions provide a glimpse into a students` life in the past, enabling us to learn more about culture, lifestyle and preoccupations of German speaking students and this is what makes this study very important since it touches upon linguistic and sociological issues.
In modern Vietnam, the Viet (or the Kinh, the ethnic Vietnamese) and the Muong are considered to be two different peoples, the Viet (Kinh) being the majority and the Muong a minority. In the not so distant past, however, when Vietnam’s population did not see itself in ethnic categories, the only difference between the Viet and Muong ancestors lay in their places of residence – the inhabitants of the capital city and the surrounding plains were named ‘Kinh’ while those who lived in mountain villages were called ‘Muong’. Otherwise, they were the same people, spoke nearly the same language and shared nearly the same traditions. Their commonality is emphasized in the term they are referred to by, i.e. the Viet-Muong. This chapter explores the Vietnamese and Muong languages, dialects, legends, epics and folk songs in a comparative perspective to reveal their similarities, discrepancies, influences and politics. The panelists’ goal is to identify phenomena which are specific for the Viet-Muong community as a whole and those that divide them into two separate groups - the Viet and the Muong.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.