Дериваты ранних стадий развития эго в личностном отношении к оппозициям
The article presents the results of the study of ontogenetic aspects of ego in personal relation to the life oppositions. These aspects are unconscious in themselves. The ego is the source of the individual relationships. The early stages of its genesis determine the specificity of personal relationship to the Self in adulthood. The idea of Ego arises from the need of an infant to cope with the opposition appearing in its life at the moment of birth (tension - relaxation, wakefulness - sleep, "my" - "other") is the basis of the work. It is stated that Ego develops while operating with complicated oppositions of life, fixes "successful" operations with them in the form of defensive processes and unconsciously uses the same action with the opposition in solving cognitive tasks. The article grounds the theoretical connections between personal operations with oppositions, defensive processes and the type of adaptation. The methodology of empirical study of these connections is offered.
The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
This study deals with the reception of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology in Martin Heidegger's fundamental ontology. The study targets those elements common to the two philosophic systems that explain how the phenomenology influences the launch of Martin Heidegger's basic philosophic attitudes, namely, Husserl's theory of intentionality and perception, material a priori and categorical contemplation, and specifically Husserl's transcendental philosophy.
A sample of 509 individuals aged from 14 to 53 was tested for different measures of personality self-regulation, i.e. operational (V.I. Morosanova’s approach) and dispositional (D.A. Leontiev’s approach), as well as for ego development level (J. Loevinger’s approach). The results demonstrate that the lower level of ego development tends to be, the closer different types of self-regulation were manifested. By contrast, at the higher levels of ego development the trajectories of the two self-regulation types were dispersed.
The article focuses on investigation of personal attitudes toward oppositions of life. This research is following the principles of psychology of personal life attitudes and cultural psychology of personality. Some ways of explication of psychological knowledge about intuitive and reflexive personal attitudes to oppositions from cultural sources are suggested. As a data for hermeneutic analysis, texts of folk tales and Renaissance self-cognition text are provided. Author concentrates on self-developing and self-forming aspects of personal attitude to life oppositions.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.