Sustainable development of polar and high-mountain regions of the world – the сhange of the polar paradigm
The article discusses the modern periglacial environment of high-latitude and high-altitude regions that extends from the cold limits of forest to the snowline. Within a compact space, several sharply contrasting mountain landscape belts interchange. Living organisms there are particularly affected by cosmic and random-destructive forces. Precisely in these areas, various global geographical, geological, and biological problems are manifested most vividly. The upper limits of agriculture and their importance for high-altitude areas in the main mountain systems of the world are considered. Tourism changes the periglacial environment approach paradigm from the use- and risk-management perspective to the axiological, with attractive categories, angle.
The 25th anniversary of the Constitution of the Russian Federation has led to the formulation of questions about the results of the development of Russian society, about a possible constitutional reform. A certain deviation of the 1993 constitutional model from the realities of today is recognized. The purpose of this work is to assess a number of aspects of the creation of the draft Constitution of Russia, the relationship with the current constitutional model, identify its positive results and implementation problems.
Analysis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation in 1993 is carried out using the methods of dialectics, historical analysis and comparative jurisprudence. For a more substantive analysis of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, a comparison with the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918 is used; As objects of analysis of the constitutional model of 1993, separate constitutional principles of the economic system are used (first of all, the principle of supporting competition).
The peculiarity of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation was that it consolidated the draft of the concept model of liberal-democratic civilizational development that was fundamentally new for Russia. This constitutional project is distinguished by its programmatic nature and elements of myth-making. Elements of the transition period in the formation of a modern legal market economy predetermine our development. The constitutional model of a market economy is carried out with deviations from the principles of a market economy (primarily supporting competition). In turn, this situation affects democratic institutions of political competition.
The revision of the Constitution of the Russian Federation does not make sense, since no request has been formulated for changing the paradigm of democratic market development. Separate, “pointed” changes to the Constitution of the Russian Federation are possible, but a number of problems, for example, the imbalance of state authority over the executive branch, can be solved within the constitutional powers of the Russian parliament and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The paper proposes a number of constitutional legal measures to ensure the constitutional content of the principle of competition support.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.