Fake Academic Degrees in the 18th Century?
Analyzing the most recent historical studies and sources dating back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the article reconstructs the fundamentals of degree awarding practices used in German universities of the Early Modern Period to understand whether they are comparable to present-day degree fraud practices. It examines into the academic degree concepts accepted in the pre-Modern Europe, analyses master’s and doctoral theses of the time, discusses the problem of their authorship, and traces back changes in the defense procedure as well as the historical and cultural factors which advanced the development of the modern doctoral degree. As long as social, cultural and intellectual transformations that prompted the emergence of the modern academic degree had only been completed by the beginning of the nineteenth century, the study considers it unreasonable to apply the currently existing academic and ethical criteria to the degree awarding practices of earlier historical periods. It does not mean fake degrees were a rare case or didn’t exist at all in the Early Modern Europe — it just means that academic fakeness was understood differently way back then.
The first in historiography research of the life and writings of an outstanding Russian educator, a close friend of Vladimir Lenin's father Ilya Ulyanov Alexander Alexeevich Krasev (1844-1921). It extends and corrects the conventional image of Krasev as presented in available literature.
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
The article provides a brief overview of life and works by I. Kh. Ozerov (1869-1942), a professor of financial law at Moscow and St. Petersburg State Universities, in terms oh his contribution into financial and legal studies in Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The article precedes the publication of a work by I. Kh. Ozerov On the research methods in financial studies which formulate the sociological methods of investigating the financial relationships.