The construction of an energy function for three-dimensional cascades with a two-dimensional expanding attractor
In this paper we establish the existence of an energy function for structurally stable diffeomorphisms of closed three-dimensional manifolds whose nonwandering set contains a two-dimensional expanding attractor.
In this paper the class of simplest not rough Ω-stable flows on a sphere is considered. We call simplest not rough Ω-stable flow an Ω-stable flow with least number of fixed points, a single separatrix connecting saddle points and without limit cycles. For such flows we design the Morse energy function.
We introduce the definition of consistent equivalence of energy Morse-Bott functions for Morse-Smale flows on surfaces and state that consistent equivalence of that functions is necessary and sufficient condition for such flows.
For gradient-likeflows without heteroclinic intersections of the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle periodic points all of whose saddle equilibrium states have Morse index 1 or n−1, the notion of consistent equivalence of energy functions is introduced. It is shown that the consistent equivalence of energy functions is necessary and sufficient for topological equivalence.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.