The Unified State Examination and the Determinants of Academic Achievement: Does Investment in Pre-Entry Coaching Matter?
This article examines the relationship between pre-entry coaching (both in terms of money and effort) and the achievement of Russian high school graduates as measured by the results of the Unified State Examination (USE). Using a data set of students from the 16 biggest Russian cities, which includes information on USE results, family background, school characteristics, and patterns on pre-entry coaching, I estimate the factors that determine the final USE results. Characteristics of pre-entry courses (the duration of the program as well as the total fee) are related to higher USE scores, but the size of this association is moderate. Attending individual classes has a significant (but still moderate) relationship with the USE score in Russian, but the duration of a program moderately and positively relates to the USE scores. Other factors, like parental education, family income, student abilities, and the type of school attended are significant predictors of USE results in Russian, Mathematics, and the average USE score.
This paper examines the prevalence and the costs of pre-entry coaching programs before and after the introduction of the Unified State Examination in Russia. The efficiency of private tutoring under the new standardized university admission procedures is estimated. It is argued that the main types of pre-entry coaching are still in demand, however the popularity of pre-entry courses at particular universities has declined, and the prevalence of classes with tutors who are not related to university has risen. A few years after the introduction of the Unified State Examination, the level of investment in private tutoring in real terms has barely changed; the returns from such an investment are still positive but moderate.
This paper examines the effects of pre-entry coaching on achievement of Russian high school graduates as measured by the results of the Unified state examination (USE). We estimate the factors which determine the final USE results. Parental education, family income, student’s abilities and the fact of graduation from a gymnasium or magnet school are significant predictors of USE results in Russian, Mathematics and the average USE score. Attendance of pre-entry courses has positive influence on USE scores, but the effect is moderate. Attending classes with tutors has a significant (but still moderate) effect only on the USE score in Russian
This paper examines the dynamics of the prevalence of pre-entry coaching and corresponding investment in private tutoring before and after the introduction of the Unified State Exam (the USE). Besides, we estimate the effectiveness of private tutoring in 2012, i. e. a few years after the USE has become a prerequisite for admission to university. Data from the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations show that the main types of pre-entry coaching are still in demand despite the unification of admission requirements, although the popularity of paid courses at a particular university has declined, and the prevalence of classes with tutors who are not related to university has risen. Within a few years after the introduction of the USE the level of investment in pre-entry coaching in real terms almost has not changed, however the returns from such an investment (expressed in the USE scores) are positive but moderate.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.