This article examines the incentives, major priorities, difficulties and first results of the Russian military reform that is being implemented since 2008. The authors conclude that despite numerous drawbacks and barriers to the reformist efforts certain successes can be identified. Particularly, there is a clear shift from the old-fashioned, Soviet-type army to a more compact, mobile, better equipped and combat-ready armed forces that are capable to cope with today’s challenges to Russian national security.
Modern universities play a significant role, and in some countries, a critical role in research and development (R&D) on a wide variety of topics, often they concern national security. US university science is an illustrative example in this regard, it is an important source of knowledge and technology for military departments and its industrial counterparts. However, even with the large number of theoretical and empirical studies focusing on different aspects of university research innovation activities, so far, the problems of the development of military or dual-use technologies by universities has been poorly covered in economic literature.
In this article, the specifics of university science participation in defense research and development is examined using the example of the Russian higher education institutes. It is shown that Russian universities are poorly involved in defense-related activities. Based on data from a sample survey of 80 universities, and the analysis of certain public policies on science and innovation, the authors concluded that higher education institutions have considerable potential for performing R&D activities for the defense industry. The actual problems and obstacles impeding the development of university research activities in the interests of the defense industry are identified, including the traditional focus of industrial companies on their own research divisions and sectoral research institutes and design bureaus, weak information about the current opportunities and achievements of university science, and the inadequate activity of universities in promoting their own research competencies and an image of advanced R&D centers. Possible ways of solving the existing problems are put forward for consideration.
The monograph is focused on the issues relevant to the origination and development of the Russian defence industry complex. The adopted historical approach facilitates a profound analysis of its current state and prospects of defence industry modernization. The identified dynamics and trends of the structural changes in the defence industry complex manifest their synchronism with the changes occurring in the public management structure.
The study is intended for executive and engineering staff of the defence industry complex.