Human Capital and Knowledge-Intensive Industries Location: Evidence from Soviet Legacy in Russia
Do human capital endowments trump location for knowledge-intensive industries? This paper takes advantage of a natural experiment created by the end of the Soviet planned economy in 1991, which had geographically distributed R&D manpower according to planned needs as opposed to a distribution determined by a market economy. It examines the extent to which the planned economy created a path-dependence in the location of post-Soviet human-capital intensive production. The study finds that regions with more R&D personnel in 1991did better in the development of modern market-oriented knowledge-intensive business services, like engineering and IT. Several explanations are offered for this path-dependence, with an emphasis on human capital externalities being the most plausible.
Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are seen to be a core sector of the so-called 'knowledge economy', and already play an important role in developed economies. The KIBS providers are both innovate themselves and provide their clients with knowledge and learning opportunities. This paper examines the status of KIBS in Russia, and explores some key issues in their role in innovation using data from surveys of KIBS firms and their clients.
The paper focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) to study the determinants of the successful value creation. We argue that value creation is not always efficient: the value of services could be lost due to an inefficient absorptive capacity of service consumers, who must be value adders together with providers due to the nature of services. The origins of inefficiency are elucidated by a thorough study of the interaction between KIBS producers and consumers (co-production). The methodology includes the study of observable patterns in Russian KIBS sector performancein2007-13 obtained from specialised surveys of Russian executives who were asked to answer questions both on their own company and on market developments. We provide both cross-section and generalised analysis of survey data.
The paper observes empirical evidence on Russian KIBS sector basing on sureveys fulfilled by HSE and ROMIR Monitoring research group in 2007
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.