Интегральные показатели демографических потерь от смертности и травматизма в результате дорожно-транспортных происшествий в России
The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents in Russia during 2006 to 2011. The analysis is based on the use of integrated indicators of years of life lost. It is shown that the maximum number of years of life lost due to excess mortality and disability (or gained from their elimination) is observed for men in the age group from 40 to 65 years, and for women between 55 and 75 years. New metrics of disability weights are developed.
The article presents an analysis of the demographic losses from the main causes of death in Russia, in the Republic of Bashkortostan and in OECD countries. Based on analysis of the numbers of deaths and potential years of life lost (PYLL), there was shown the position of external factors in the structure of total mortality in these regions. Although the number of deaths from external causes in both sexes before age 70 was on the 2nd place in 1992-2012 and in all ages one became on the 3rd place since 2006, in terms of PYLL premature loss from these causes had become the biggest threat to public health at least since 1990. There were specified peculiarities of calculation of the PYLL according to the methodology of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The basic conditions of the reduction of mortality from external causes are considered: the formation of vital behaviors among the population, creating a safe environment, an increase in expenditure on health care. Because almost all of the external causes of death are preventable, preventive measures play a major role in the limiting of risk factors, so Russian health system approach should be aimed not only on treatment but first of all on prevention. In addition, there were shown the analytical capabilities of the Haddon Matrix in the classification of the main factors of risk of death from external causes on the example of the suicide.
Informing about safety along with the creation of safe living and movement conditions is an important task for preserving the independence of the elderly. The article describes the experience of the UK in limiting risk factors that can lead to various injuries of older people and even their death. The success and effectiveness of measures, which ensure safe living of elderly people, can be assessed through such indicators as age-standardized mortality rate from external causes and life expectancy at age 65. According to these indicators Russia significantly behind the UK, and given the global trend of an ageing population, we should use the experience of UK in our country.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.