Процедуры голосования в малых группах
A classification of voting procedures in small groups is proposed, based on the information about candidate's orderings obtained from voter's ballots.Descriptions of known from literature voting procedures are given.
Performance impacts of ordering and production control policies in the presence of capacity disruptions are studied on the real-life example of a retail supply chain with product perishability considerations. Constraints on product perishability typically result in reductions in safety stock and increases in transportation frequency. Consideration of the production capacity disruption risks may lead to safety stock increases. This trade-off is approached with the help of a simulation model that is used to compare supply chain performance impacts with regard to coordinated and non-coordinated ordering and production control policies. Real data of a fast moving consumer goods company is used to perform simulations and to derive novel managerial insights and practical recommendations on inventory, on-time delivery and service level control. In particular, for the first time, the effect of ‘postponed redundancy’ has been observed. Moreover, a coordinated production–ordering contingency policy in the supply chain within and after the disruption period has been developed and tested to reduce the negative impacts of the ‘postponed redundancy’. The lessons learned from experiments provide evidence that a coordinated policy is advantageous for inventory dynamics stabilization, improvement in on-time delivery, and variation reduction in customer service level.
This paper considers the problem of electing candidates for a certain position based on ballots filled by voters. We suggest a voting procedure using cooperative game theory methods. For this, it is necessary to construct a characteristic function via the preference profile of voters. The Shapley value serves as the ranking method. The winner is the candidate having the maximum Shapley value. And finally, we explore the properties of the designed procedures.
The article describes the main characterist of the scientific direction " artificial intelligens" and considered them the values that define this research area. Some ways to clarifi and formalise the bounderias of scientific research directions are suggested. Formulated conclusions, which, according to the authors, restrict the flow of scientific research in this direction.
The problem of axiomatic and algorithmic constructions of the threshold decision making is studied in the case when individual opinions are given as m-graded strict preferences (with m ≥ 3). It is shown that the only rule satisfying the introduced axioms is the threshold rule. Two explicit algorithms are presented: the ordering algorithm, under which the vector-grades of alternatives are successively written out, and an enumerating social decision function corresponding to the natural order of the weak order equivalence classes.
This compilation presents papers on the techniques of building global international university rankings, participation in them of Russian higher education institutions including the winners of 5/100/2020 Federal Project, the positions of national higher education in the international market of educational services. The authors analyze the methodology of ranking higher education institutions, the experience of developing rankings of leading universities in the Post-Soviet area and the BRICS countries. The authors are workers of Russian and foreign universities and research institutions as well as other organizations dealing with the development and analysis of rankings. The book is addressed to instructors, scientific workers, and to everybody interested in international education; global, regional, and national university rankings; the possibilities of enhancing the competitiveness of national higher education institutions. This edition is prepared in the framework of implementation of the Government resolution «On measures of state support of leading universities of the Russian Federation in order to enhance their competitiveness among the leading world scientific and educational centers» (as of 16 March 2013 № 211).