Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detector with a reduced active area coupled to a tapered lensed single-mode fiber
This paper presents an ultrafast niobium nitride (NbN) superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) with an active area of 3 × 3 μm^2 that offers better timing performance metrics than the previous SSPD with an active area of 7 × 7 μm^2. The improved SSPD demonstrates a record timing jitter (<25 ps), an ultrashort recovery time (<2 ns), an extremely low dark count rate, and a high detection efficiency in a wide spectral range from visible part to near infrared. The record parameters were obtained due to the development of a new technique providing effective optical coupling between a detector with a reduced active area and a standard singlemode telecommunication fiber. The advantages of the new approach are experimentally confirmed by taking electro-optical measurements.
We found that background radiation limits the dark count rates of superconducting single photon detectors coupled to standard single mode optical fibers to a minimum level when the source temperature of the photons is close to 300 K. We measured this level to be 103 cps, which was confirmed by a theoretical analysis of the background radiation influence. We also investigated the filtering-effect of cooled single mode optical fibers with different bending diameters and showed that for superconducting photon receivers with operating wavelengths below 2 µm the minimum dark count rate can be significantly decreased down to 0.1 cps.
We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of travelling-wave superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with polycrystalline diamond photonic circuits. We analyze their performance both in the near-infrared wavelength regime around 1600 nm and at 765 nm. Near-IR detection is important for compatibility with the telecommunication infrastructure, while operation in the visible wavelength range is relevant for compatibility with the emission line of silicon vacancy centers in diamond which can be used as efficient single-photon sources. Our detectors feature high critical currents (up to 31 μA) and high performance in terms of efficiency (up to 74% at 765 nm), noise-equivalent power (down to 4.4×10-19 W/Hz1/2 at 765 nm) and timing jitter (down to 23 ps).
We discuss the possibility of polarization state reconstruction and measurement over 302 km by Superconducting Single- Photon Detectors (SSPDs). Because of the excellent characteristics and the possibility to be effectively coupled to singlemode optical fiber many applications of the SSPD have already been reported. The most impressive one is the quantum key distribution (QKD) over 250 km distance. This demonstration shows further possibilities for the improvement of the characteristics of quantum-cryptographic systems such as increasing the bit rate and the quantum channel length, and decreasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). This improvement is possible because SSPDs have the best characteristics in comparison with other single-photon detectors. We have demonstrated the possibility of polarization state reconstruction and measurement over 302.5 km with superconducting single-photon detectors. The advantage of an autocompensating optical scheme, also known as "plugandplay" for quantum key distribution, is high stability in the presence of distortions along the line. To increase the distance of quantum key distribution with this optical scheme we implement the superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD). At the 5 MHz pulse repetition frequency and the average photon number equal to 0.4 we measured a 33 bit/s quantum key generation for a 101.7 km single mode ber quantum channel. The extremely low SSPD dark count rate allowed us to keep QBER at 1.6% level.
We report on the development of a highly sensitive optical receiver for heterodyne IR spectroscopy at the communication wavelength of 1.5 μm (200 THz) by use of a superconducting hot-electron bolometer. The results are important for the resolution of narrow spectral molecular lines in the near-IR range for the study of astronomical objects, as well as for quantum optical tomography and fiber-optic sensing. Receiver configuration as well as fiber-to-detector light coupling designs are discussed. Light absorption of the superconducting detectors was enhanced by nano-optical antennas, which were coupled to optical fibers. An intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth of about 3 GHz was found in agreement with measurements at 300 GHz, and a noise figure of about 25 dB was obtained that was only 10 dB above the quantum limit.
We investigate contribution to the detectivity of superconducting radiation sensors, originated from a change in spectral functions of the absorber under influence of the absorbed power. For the absorber manufactured of dirty superconducting film we demonstrate that at low temperature the only cause of the change in spectral functions is the change of the order parameter. A method for calculation corrections to the spectral functions for the case of dirty film is suggested.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.