«An Acte for Lawes and Justice to be ministered in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realm» и проблемы инкорпорации Уэльса в состав Английского королевства.
The article is devoted to «An Acte for Lawes and Justice to be ministered in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realm» (27 Henry VIII c. 26) and «An Acte for certaine Ordinaunces in the Kinges Majesties Domynion and Principalitie of Wales» (34 and 35 Henry VIII c. 26) which incorporated Wales to England, extended the legal system of England to Wales and introduced the norms of English administration. These Acts are considered as a part of the Tudor’s state formation, which was characterized by colonialism and by the intention to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction. In this article authors analyze main causes of these acts’ creation and preparation stages for the Wales’ incorporation to England. Act of Union ended the distinction between the principality and the March, abolished privileges of the Lords of the March, established new administrative division into counties and provided Wales with representation in Parliament. According to the Act of Union 1535 English became the only language of the courts of Wales. The next Act of 1542 established new system of courts in Wales, as a result Wales got some elements of self-government.
From the outset of privatization in Russia researchers from a number of countries have been studying the emerging real estate market and the residential sector development in Russian cities. Typically, their attention has been focused on legal and institutional challenges like the inconsistency and inadequacy of legislation, blurred or duplicated functions of different power bodies, the immaturity of real estate market infrastructure and low professionalism of the market's agents (appraisers, developers, intermediaries, notaries, etc.). They also pointed out that privatization required tighter control over area development, and introduction of new townplanning instruments and regulations. While accepting many points raised by the above publications, we must nevertheless emphasise that the development of real estate market in Russia has shown impressively high rates. Despite all the difficulties the private sector now prevails in construction; and professional associations of realtors, appraisers, and notaries, as well as associations of mortgage banks and insurors are in good progress. The state sector's level of adjustment to market is less impressive, but one should not forget that the main reason behind all reform's controvercies and inconsistencies is politics. The existing political pattern of Russian legislative bodies blocks radical market transformations, and the confrontation between the President and the State Duma leads to controvercial decisions.
Collection of papers on the early state presented at an international conference in Xi'an, China, in 2013.
The main focus of this paper is the analysis of problems in the field of legislative regulation of the international abduction of children in Russia as well as of the perspectives and obstacles of the implementation of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Russia acceded to the Convention one year ago. Author aims to study the progress achieved during this period in the field of setting the mechanisms prescribed by the Convention and in bringing Russian legislation in the conformity with standards stipulated in the Convention.
The book is devoted to important problems of contemporary political anthropology: theoretical and methodological problems of the study of genesis, functioning, and historical dynamics of early political systems are discussed. The chapters are written by the evidence from Scandianvia, the Balcans, Rus', Africa, and South Asia.
The problems of identity are no new theme in the research in African politics. In the foreground of interest of political scientists, historians, philosophers, sociologists and experts in African studies the identity appears in particular in connection with the for¬mation of African nations, the existence of nationalities and ethnics, which have direct influence on the operation of the African political system, especially its institutions. The scholars use a great many different approaches, which suggest the importance of these issues in the research in African integration processes and especially the process of development of modern African nations.
This Chapter describes the history of social security legislation development abroad and presents both classical and modern models of social security in foreign countries.
The idea of ligalization of bribe giving for certain types of bribes was expressed by K. Basu in 2011 and got a name Basu proposal. In this paper we discuss effects that can be caused by the direct implementation of this proposal. Our game-theoretic model shows that while legalisation of certain bribe-giving occurances can lead to some positive consequences, it is not always a good idea to return bribe to the bribe-giver as suggested by Basu. The chance to get the paid bribe back increases the amount of bribes that end up in corrupt officials' pockets.
The collapse of the socialist system prompted the former USSR countries to “re-invent” their stateness. The paper focuses on factors that impede or smooth stateness transformations in post-Soviet countries. First, the paper examines internal and external factors of state formation in selected countries. Next, it introduces empirical research tools and empirical findings that present alternative patterns of stateness and outcomes of state formation. The paper concludes with a detailed review of certain cases that may be considered prototypes of state formation for post-Soviet countries.
This article is devoted to the Digest of the Laws of the Russian Empire – an embodiment of the operative legal system in late imperial Russia. Even though the Digest contained the law in force, and thus should be studied as a crucial source on Russian (legal) history, its meaning has been often overlooked. The reason for that is a remarkable difference between the original texts of laws adopted by the legislator, and their published form in the Digest. This difference came from the necessary editing procedures when every new piece of legislation was included in the existing system of the Digest. This strange feature of legal procedure when two different versions of a particular law – the original one and the one codified in the Digest – both remained in force should be considered as a part of official autocratic legality in late imperial Russia. Even though it may seem inefficient and irrational, the practice of obligatory codification of laws in the Digest existed for a rather long time – from 1835 until 1917. My research aims to find possible explanations for the Digest’s prolonged existence in the context of political and legal culture of late imperial Russia. What did Russian ‘official legality’ actually mean on the levels of theory and action?