К вопросу о роли коммуникативного фрагмента в переводческом владении языком
The article considers the nature and character of the language units which form the basis of the translator’s knowledge of language and the skills needed to use them. The author looks at some specific characteristics of translation, such as its heuristic nature, various conditions, special requirements for the translated text. The analysis of the influence of these factors on translator’s work suggests that professional autonomy and skills of self-directed learning are essential for a translator. The author supposes that translator’s language knowledge is made up of “communicative fragments”, a concept introduced by B. M. Gasparov, which reflects the nature of language resources used by our language memory. The author then considers the skills a translator needs to identify and use communicative fragments in his work, as well as some additional skills of using reference works, language management and maintenance skills. Developing these skills can result in higher-quality translations and provide conditions for continuing professional development of a translator.
The focus of the article is on the category of conflict in a scientific text and its translation. The work «Metaphors we live by» by G.Lakoff and M.Johnson is taken as a source for the analysis.
There is shown the specific character of code change in the process of translation, analysed the factors that optimize it, regarded the specificity of different directions of code change.
The paper presents a project aimed at the development of a Russian Learner Parallel Corpus, discusses the existing analogues, describes the current status and the tasks in which it could be used. The existing parallel corpora contain (comparatively) “correct” translations; whereas the aim of the present project is to create a sufficiently large corpus of imperfectly translated Russian and English texts together with their sources and use it as a tool for translation studies, especially those related to translation mistakes. The new corpus will be a valuable resource for computational linguistics as it provides another way of getting data for evaluation which could be used to improve machine translation systems. As of now, the corpus is available on-line, it already contains nearly half a million word tokens and is growing. The main source of material is translations made by student translators in Russian universities.
The introduction describes the concept in the "hard"and "soft" sciences.
Nested Petri nets (NP-nets) are Petri nets with net tokens - an extension of high-level Petri nets for modeling active objects, mobility and dynamics in distributed systems. In this paper we present an algorithm for translating two-level NP-nets into behaviorally equivalent Colored Petri nets with the view of applying CPN methods and tools for nested Petri nets analysis. We prove, that the proposed translation preserves dynamic semantics in terms of bisimulation equivalence.
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.