Formation of individual infological models of performance management systems
The paper focuses on the questions of infological modeling of performance management systems (PMS), which represent the means of information support of strategic management and help to eliminate the gaps between strategic and operational management levels. Infological models of performance management systems include such elements as information flows, external information objects, functional blocks, functional modules, analytical functions, as well as methods, information systems and processes of management information processing. It is preferable to develop individual infological models for particular organizations relying on reference models, by individualizing them and detailed elaboration. Among the reference models, there is a basic (generic) infological model that represents the most common characteristics of all the enterprises and organizations, regardless their types and industry affiliation. The procedure of transition from the basic infological model to an individual model includes four stages. In the first stage, detailed elaboration of enlarged information flows is performed: each of the enlarged information flows is subdivided into more detailed flows, taking into consideration the peculiarities of a concrete organization. The detailing is provided taking into account types and sources of information, as well its affiliation with particular divisions, business segments and geographical segments. In the second stage, relationships between inputs and outputs of functional modules are discovered. Relying on such relations, preliminary (necessitating additional specification) analytical functions are established. In the third stage, the processes of collection, storage and processing of management information that are available within preliminary analytical functions are defined. Finally, in the fourth stage, the final versions of analytical functions are created by detailing and re-organization of previously defined preliminary functions. The paper also indicates the possibility of an alternative approach, where developing an individual model starts with the definition of analytical functions.
The article continues A.N. Sterligova’s publication “Logistical context of enterprise business model” (Logistics and Supply Chain Management. – №1 (66). – 2015. – pages 24-34). As it was described in that publication, in a challenging economic environment strategic changes for business can be implemented by changing their business models. The author provided a definition of a business model (BM) as an object connected with defining, creating, distributing, supplying value to customers, and appropriation of profits through their recognition on the market. Logistics was used to develop and use BM. The model of a logistical component was described. The author suggested a set of indexes that evaluate original supplies and results of BM in order to analyze BM effectiveness according to its results and also to decide whether developing a new enterprise BM is necessary when the quality and quantity of original resources is changing.
A further research is aimed to analyze how BM can be used in various industries and to decide if figures of initial resources and results of BM can be made universal.
The present article explains why business models are significant in modern metallurgy in the framework of customer value chain. The authors analyze BM of leading ferrous metallurgy companies bearing on the proposed logistical component of BM and determines variability of its logistical component. The researcher summarizes results of BM industry. The authors examines economic factors that make logistics help companies get required financial figures.
In the paper the matters of development of corporate governance and strategic management information support systems are considered. For management purposes related with development of such systems a methodological approach is proposed. The approach stipulates three management levels: upper (the level of the system in whole), middle (the level of subsystems) and lower (the level of development projects). General management functions such as design, planning and control are considered within the managerial scheme. Feedforward and feedback relations between certain management functions, including functions of different hierarchical levels, are described.
In the paper basic principles and general approach to development of Performance Management Systems (PMSs) are discussed. It is considered that development of PMSs should rely on certain principles, each of them is described in details. Finally, a two-level managerial approach to PMS design and development planning is proposed. The top level, related with PMS in whole, is considered within the bounds of three generic stages – functional modeling, dynamic modeling and finalizing.
In the paper the questions of monitoring and planning of Performance Management Information Support Systems (PMISS) development are discussed. The role of the monitoring and planning functions in the general development management system is disclosed, basic requirements to these functions and general principles of their practical implementation are formulated. The main elements of the monitoring and planning system are described, the perspectives of further research are proposed.
The aim of the paper is to develop a methodological approach to conceptual modeling of performance management systems. For these purposes such systems are considered as means of information support of corporate governance and strategic management and include such components as analytical methods, management processes, information systems and personnel competences. As a result, a modeling approach based on functional blocks, modules and information flows is proposed, and a conceptual model of a generic performance management system is developed. The model consists of four aggregative functional blocks (strategic analysis and strategic choice, management by key performance indicators, corporate planning and budgeting, consolidated financial reporting) and may be considered as a reference model for different types of organizations.
In the paper integrated information systems for corporate planning and budgeting are considered. Four groups of practical tasks exceeding the bounds of typical functionality of special-purpose planning and budgeting information systems are allocated. Several classes of information systems (simulation, statistical analysis, financial analysis and modeling, group decision making, business intelligence), which may provide the completeness of corporate planning and budgeting are denoted as solutions complementary to special-purpose planning and budgeting systems.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
The manual is intended for students of Department of computer engineering MIEM HSE. In the textbook based on the courses "Economics of firm" and "the development strategy of the organization." Discusses the key conceptual and methodological issues of the theory and practice of Economics and development planning of the organization. The use of textbooks will enable students: to analyze key performance indicators, and use the tools of strategic analysis with reference to concrete situations in contemporary Russian and international business. Special attention is paid to the methods and systems of information support of the life support functions of business organizations and management methodology of innovation and investment. An Appendix contains source data for analysis of competition in a particular industry.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.