Freedom and Responsibility Go Together: Personality, Experimental, and Cultural Demonstrations
Although common stereotypes and the OED definition of freedom suggest that freedom and responsibility are incompatible, in three cross-cultural studies, we test the existential psychological premise that freedom and responsibility are actually complementary. In all three studies, a) measures of dispositional freedom and dispositional responsibility were positively correlated; b) emphasizing freedom in an experimental context increased responsibility-taking after failure; and c) Responsibility-taking was slightly lower in Russia, a country typically ranked lower in world freedom indices. In Studies 1 and 2 responsibility-taking was more strongly associated with competence and longitudinal goal-attainment in the Russian sample, suggesting that individual responsibility can compensate for freedom-limiting aspects of socio-cultural contexts. In Study 3 the best predictor of felt free will (especially in the U.S.) was the lay theory belief that “freedom involves taking responsibility for one’s actions.” Supporting a control sensitivity explanation of the socio-cultural differences, a second Study 3 experiment found that Russians were inclined to take more responsibility than Americans, but only when it was requested (not demanded) by family/friends (but not by authorities or by strangers).
The article deals with the issues of responsibility in civil procedural law from the point of theory and methodology of the contemporary jurisprudence. The article gives a new interpretation of the system of legal responsibility and the role of the civil procedural responsibility in this system. The mechanism of procedural responsibility is interpreted through the concept of contempt to court.
This article deals with reconstruction of representations of V. Frankl about the Person as a basis of an individualization and self$formation. Methodological bases of V. Frankl-understanding of the Person in philosophical anthropology of M. Sheler and psychological categories by means of which the process of actualization of humans personal origin is described are considered, and also is given the estimation of sights of V. Frankl from a point of view of a range of the problems solved by psychology of the personality.
личность, свобода, ценности, Совесть, смысл, person, freedom, Values, conscience, meaning
This paper is devoted to the problem of cultural crisis and those points of view on this problem that were maintained by russian and western philosophers. It was written a lot of books concerning this subject. At the beginning of XX century many philosophers within different philosophical tradition and schools began to reason about the crisis of culture. For some of them it was important to stress religious aspect of crisis: the mankind has lost the belief in God — this is the reason of crisis. For others it was importatt to understand the social aspect of cultural crisis.
Cultural crisis is the crisis of values: human and freedom. In the first half of the XXth century the culture has not found answers for two questions: what is freedom and what is human?
The author looks into the contradictions of security and the paradigms of their resolution in the modern era. The issue of security is considered in conjunction with the issue of justice. Emphasi is placed on the fact that the disharmony of the modern security paradigms is just temporary. As the global civil society is growing stronger, the paradigm of human rights must once again regain its priority. Just as in the case of the return of the multipolarity of the world, the paradigm of cooperation and non-intervention must get back the lost rights
There are analyzed the encountered in the title kinds of exploitation, uncovered its social danger and given the criminal legal characteristics, pointed out the ways of counteraction in the article. The author substantiates the conclusions concerning the freedom from such kinds of exploitation and the measures of combating encroachments on this freedom. There is shown the significance of the civil society institutions for the relevant areas of penal policy.
This book is intended for those who are struggling to understand and confront the epidemic of violence in our world but are not familiar with the nonviolent alternatives. Among those alternatives is the tradition of ahimsa, which has been advocated and practiced by the Jains for the last twenty-five centuries. Inspired by the Jains, this collection of essays speaks with many “voices” – personal reflections, scholarly studies, religious insights n to provide examples, guidance, and encouragement to those trying to cope with the violence that has become so prevalent. The essays should speak to a broad audience, but most especially to young people (late teens to early twenties), who are surrounded by violence practically from their birth and in virtually all aspects of their life: home, school, community, work, and media. The book will help them see: 1. What is involved in a nonviolent approach to the world, and how to apply it in various aspects of their daily lives. ? 2. That there are many of us out there n of different genders, race, professions, social classes, and religious affiliations, on every continent n who take nonviolence very seriously and try to live in accordance with its principles and values. ? 3. That there are many groups, institutions, and organizations that practice nonviolence and who can offer guidance, counsel, and help. ? The central aims of this book are to let those dealing ? with or surrounded by violence know that there is another way, and to encourage them to try to live in accordance with that way n the way of nonviolence. The discourse of the twentieth century was dictated by its "big" events-two world wars, the Holocaust, the killing of millions of people during the times of political turmoil in India, China, Cambodia, the Soviet Union, and numerous other countries, and the nuclear arms race during the Cold War. The haunting images of broken bodies and destroyed countries, and the thoughts of how easily all life on this planet could be destroyed, brought to our eyes and minds the realization of the unprecedented levels of physical destruction of which we are now capable. In the frenzy of war, those who are violent are hailed as heroes and saviors. Those who refuse to choose sides, those who do not shoot and murder, those who resort to nonviolence, are regarded as traitors and cowards. Yet when the weapons stop firing, when the surviving "heroes" are relegated to hospitals and psychiatric wards, it is the healers who take the central role. What is so dearly needed for all of those who are hurting are hospitality and healing acceptance and care. The brokenness of our world has reached such an alarming level that it appears to undermine the distinction between victimizers and victims: those who victimize others do so because they themselves have been victimized, because they themselves have been hurting. And the forms and levels of hurting have become so numerous that playing the blame game and insisting on justice is often beside the point. What is sorely needed is not another instance of hurting but its opposite: healing. This is why, on the pages that follow, you will find so many stories of hospitality: toward strangers, toward refugees, toward orphaned or imprisoned children, toward the elderly..
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.