Scientific and Technological Potential of Russia at the Present Stage: Implementation Challenges and Prospects for Development
New definitions of the scientific and technological potential and the scientific and technological base, resting on the distinction between past, present, and future efforts of the public ensuring its reproduc tion, are introduced. The main trends in the development of the Russian scientific and technological base are analyzed in comparison with major foreign countries, as well as the changes in some components of the Rus sian scientific and technological potential in the 2000s. An estimate is made for the measures of state support for all forms of financing of Russia’s scienceintensive hightech complex in 2008–2013, and the relationship between government support measures and output growth in real terms is considered using the example of the aircraft industry
This book presents nine case studies on small and medium-sized Russian innovative companies that received at different times financial support of the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology (FASIE). These case studies reveal 'live' experience in the setting up and development of innovative businesses in various fields: production of new products and materials, IT, industrial, scientific and medical devices, medical diagnostics. Various specific examples show the main problems faced by small innovative companies in raising financial backing for R&D and further commercialization and implementation of new products, technologies and services, as well as ways and means to address these problems in a different business environment. All case studies were elaborated on the basis of in-depth interviews with company executives within the framework of the project “Factory of cases”, completed by Higher School of Economics by commission from FASIE. The book also contains the review article, illustrating the specifics of innovative activity of small and medium-sized start-ups in Russia, and additionally provides brief analytical findings based on the results of the special study “Social profile of the modern russian innovative entrepreneur”, conducted by the Institute of Innovation Management in 2011. These collected articles are designed for innovative entrepreneurs and executives of small and medium-sized innovative companies, investors, managers and specialists of innovation support infrastructure.
Innovative activity of companies differs due to their sphere. This paper will focus on companies operating in the IT (Information Technology) sphere, whose business success depends on innovations more than the success of companies in any other sector. Innovations for manufacturing hi-tech products, for example, computer equipment, demand more intense (narrower) focus on product innovations owing to the fact that the basis of viability and financial well-being of hi-tech companies is demand for their products. Therefore, innovations in such companies are mostly directed at creation of new products or modernization of the already existing ones. As a consequence, in order to define the activity of IT companies more precisely we should use specific classification of innovation strategies. The innovative behavior of IT-companies is one of the main sources of competitiveness, business survival and economic growth. It is therefore important to identify and understand the factors that determine innovation behavior among IT enterprises. Innovation behavior depends on innovation capacity and is realized in a particular innovation strategy. This paper attempts to show the mechanism of choosing the most appropriate innovation strategy and the most accurate project estimation. Using the data collected on IT companies, the correlation between innovation strategies and company’s performance was found.
In light of globalisation of knowledge generation, Science and Technology have opened up previously distinct borderlines now favoring overlapping if not merged fields. Hence innovation becomes more complex by bundling different technological solutions in new products, processes, services and business models, which stem from different scientific and technological roots. Thus spillovers are an essential precondition towards the establishment of new interdisciplinary fields of knowledge, science and technology. The paper reviews and synthesizes literature on spillovers, introduces a typology of spillovers and a taxonomy of spillover channels, estimates the economic impact of spillovers. Special attention is paid to assessing recipient’s capabilities to absorb new knowledge thus gaining advantages for own development. The author concludes that knowledge spillovers have a positive impact on performance of a recipient (company, country or region) as long as it possesses sufficient absorptive capacity. Spillovers might under certain circumstances lead to strengthening competition between knowledge recipients at the cost of the place of origin. Nonetheless the latter still is in a position to use instruments of legal protection of own knowledge (under certain circumstances), build on the existing competences and capacities and invest in the next frontier of knowledge and technology in certain fields and moreover create a boom in the field of knowledge and technology generated using marketing instruments extensively.
The paper contains a review of the on-line services’ contemporary state, which are providing access to scientific data bases of patents and publications in magazines. On the example of a family of screen’s technologies (CRT, LCD, PDP) were shown the development and the replacement of technological trends in that branch of researches. This analysis was performed on the base of time series of the patent data via methods of the data mining.
This paper based on extensive survey analyzes relationships between Russian companies and the state in 2006–2010. As well as company characteristics, regional differences are also taken into account. Special focus is made on changes in relations due to world crisis and differences in relations with the state between industrial companies and enterprises from service sector. Regression analysis shows that in 2009–2010 relationship was built on “model of exchange” principle and the system was quite inert: even changes in GRP and investments’ level induced by crisis do not influence the probability of receiving government support. However, it was established that when allocating support the authorities take unemployment changes into consideration, which means that social factors matter.
In the article the main features of forming of innovative and branch clusters are examined. Major problems faced in creating and functioning of the clusters’ form are stated. Also suggestions on the main organizational principles of innovative and branch are offered.
This article is devoted to the issue of government export promotion activities (export support) available to the Russian companies and focused on removing (or mitigating) various economic barriers, which can prevent the enterprises from participation in the international trade. The article puts forward several objectives, which should be set by the government in order to achieve the most effective results in helping the firm develop its abilities and increase exports at any stage of internationalization. Besides the article contains a list of economic restrictive measures imposed by foreign governments against Russian products and provides certain recommendations concerning possible ways to improve the existing system of government export support.