Положение детей-инвалидов и их семей в зеркале переписей населения
Background. A shortage of representative data on the national level on social and economic status of children with disabilities (CWD) and their families became more apparent after Russia had ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Number of CWD identified in regular population surveys is not sufficient to allow comprehensive analysis. In this situation population census becomes the main source of data on CWD. Censuses account beneficiaries of pensions on disability but to use this information for the comparative analysis of opportunities for CWD and their families was not possible, an access to data was open recently.
Objective. To analyse a status of CWD and their parents living in private households identified by censuses 2002 and 2010, and to assess advantages and disadvantages of the censuses data on CWD.
Results. Both censuses point at some pronounced inequalities. Parents of the CWD are less educated and less professionally trained. Unemployment among mothers of the CWD is much higher. A job issue is especially acute in rural areas. Percentage of rural families where both parents have no job is larger than in urban areas. This makes a personal subsidiary plot highly important for rural families with CWD. Involvement of CWD in pre-school and school education rose between censuses but a gap still persists. The CWD live in single-parent families more often than other children. However, undercount of CWD by both censuses is impressive: more than 50% of CWD were omitted.
Conclusions. The huge undercount could bias census estimates, perhaps, exaggerating the differences revealed between families with CWD and other families with children. The drawback is of the methodological nature for reason of unclear instructions in classifying pensions by their types. Although a state-of-art in statistics on children with disabilities is rather poor, we suggest a few simple steps to improve the situation. One of them would be to put the direct question about “official” disability in censuses.