Социально-психологический капитал и политическое поведение личности
The capter is dedicated to the description of the fragmentation of the Russian media-based public sphere, in particular - to the dymanics of media use of the participants of the 'For fair elections' political protest movement in Russia of 2011-2012. Authors counclude that: 1) socio-economic divisions in today's Russia are mirrored in the media use patterns; 2) traditional textocentricism of Russian intelligentsia shows up and shapes media preferences and opinion leading: 3) changes in political behavior online (weakly) correlates with differences in online media use patterns; 4) a nation-wide public counter-sphere has formed in the Russian big cities. A prediction is made that fragmentation of the Russian public sphere will be deepening.
The article is a first step towards understanding the specifics of the interaction between religiosity and political behavior in contemporary Russia and sets a goal to identify whether there are significant differences in political participation between religious and nonreligious people. Statistical analysis results show that political participation of Russians as well of Europeans is influenced by both religious affiliation of the respondent and the degree of religiosity.
The review discusses a book written by Pippa Norris (Norris P. Why Electoral Integrity Matters. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2014. 297 p.) who currently is the McGuire Lecturer in Comparative Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Her book seeks to answer the question what happens when elections violate the international standards of electoral integrity. The author basing on elaborate and diligent empirical study comes to some important conclusions about the ability of ordinary citizens to estimate electoral integrity and the political consequences of fraudulent or rigged elections. Firstly, ordinary citizens are usually aware of many types of electoral malpractices and therefore can make reasoned judgments about the quality of contests in their countries. Secondly, high level of people skepticism with regard to electoral integrity is linked to the legitimacy of a political system. Thirdly, lack of legitimacy entails certain consequences for patterns of voting and political participation, as well as, protest activism. Fourthly, doubts in electoral integrity can trigger political violence in some cases. Such an outcome is highly likely in hybrid regimes. Finally, fraudulent or rigged contests under certain circumstances can push changes in a political system itself. The reviewed work has a big deal in understanding the linkage between elections and political processes on micro- and macro- levels. The book, undoubtedly, will be useful to those who are interested in electoral studies, problems of democratization and understanding of protest political activity.
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior explores the intersection of psychology, political science, sociology, and human behavior. This encyclopedia integrates theories, research, and case studies from a variety of disciplines that inform this established area of study. Aimed at college and university students, this one-of-a-kind book covers voting patterns, interactions between groups, what makes different types of government systems appealing to different societies, and the impact of early childhood development on political beliefs, among others. Topics explored by political psychologists are of great interest in fields beyond either psychology or political science, with implications, for instance, within business and management.
European countries are culturally close, still showing great variance in political participation rates as well as in predominant religions and state-church relations experience, what makes this region a good case for comparative research. Given this, it becomes important to study if members of different confessions differ in political participation rates, or the main cleavage lies between religious and non-religious people regardless of religious tradition? Does Orthodoxy really lead to lower levels of political participation or what we see is the effect of political regime or Communist legacy? Statistical analysis results suggest that regular attendance of religious services and praying does increase chances to participate in politics. This pattern holds for followers of all major European religious traditions and in countries with different predominant religions. On the other hand, most inter-confessional differences in political participation appear weak and unstable, while both belonging to an Orthodox religious tradition and living in a predominantly Orthodox state exert a stable and negative effect on political participation. Additional tests suggest that there is no difference in political participation between Orthodox Christians from predominantly Orthodox states and those where they form only a minority. Consequently, it is something in a religious tradition itself that decreases political participation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.