Информационно-аналитические материалы по итогам первого этапа проекта «Модернизация педагогического образования»
Author discusses the most important and controversial issues associated with the project of educational standards for high school: a paradigm shift from "vseobuch" to "actionism", the need for teacher retraining, the changing nature of public control over the school and also the question of when new standards should be the implemented. Special attention is paid to the basic curriculum: subjects studied at a basic or advanced level; the need to reduce the number of existing subjects; rationality of the choice of subjects, which are assumed to be compulsory by the standards. Author also notices that one of the strengths of the new standards is moral and personal development of students.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
A continues microelectronics education system has been developed at MIEM. The approach provides all microelectronic products design stages learning and is based on close software/hardware relations and wide collaboration with industry enterprises during education process. The microelectronic products design stages studied inside the microelectronics educational program are considered.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.