Языковые изменения в процессе старения
Language decline in normally-advancing age is most likely seen in problems with lexical retrieval and comprehension. The lexical retrieval problems are most commonly for proper nouns, but may occur as well for other substantives and even idioms. Comprehension problems are more for auditory than written materials, particularly with complex text or in stressful (e.g. noisy) conditions. Discourse patterns may change as well, depending on the nature of the tasks eliciting them. For elderly individuals who display mild cognitive impairment or progress to Alzheimer’s disease, lexical-retrieval problems and comprehension diffi culties can be more severe, and all aspects of language and communication can be impaired in the later stages of Alzheimer’s dementia. Age-related language changes have been explained as languagespecifi c or related to cognitive abilities such as memory and inhibition, and have been attributed to areas of the brain that undergo substantial age-related changes.
The subject of the analysis is the problem of interrelation of language, understanding, and being in H.-G. Gadamer's Hermeneutics. The analysis is focused on Gadamer's equivocal and ambiguous thesis that "being that can be understood is language". The author reveals the fundamentally ontological background of Gadamer's hermeneutical analysis of language, and critically rethinks the interpretation of this thesis by a prominent researcher Jean Grondin.
In his paper to explore such a problem as an identification of philosophical knowledge is proposed to turn to the H.-G. Gadamer's project of philosophical hermeneutics, within the framework of which there's an attempt to determine the universal specific features in any case of philosophizing. As an interesting point it seems to be a convergence between poetry and philosophy on the grounds of some of their common features itemized in the paper. The convergence with poetry in particular and with work of art in principle allows to distinguish clearly the philosophy from the science and reveal its (philosophy) importance in the context of daily practice for each person. As a distinctive feature of philosophizing is noted its speculative nature, especial work with the concept.
The book contains the results of research in the systemic study of the English language.
Developmental risk refers to conditions, characteristics, experiences, or situations with potentially deleterious effects that lead to outcomes later in life that do not meet societal expectations. While risk is typically framed as the statistical probability of a problematic outcome in relation to the general population, the converse notion of well-being is considered in relation to the level of functioning at a given developmental stage. The contributors to this volume provide insight into developmental well-being by examining the ways that culture and context affect outcomes associated with various types of risk, such as those related to oppression, academic performance, family background, life history, physical health, and psychiatric conditions. Even though certain outcomes may seem inevitable in cases involving harmful environments, diseases, and disorders, they are virtually all influenced by complex interactions among individuals, their families, communities, and societies.
The goal of our study was to figure out the dynamic of neurodegeneration in healthy subjects, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to compare processes of pathological neurodegeneration and normal aging. For these purposes we registered saccadic eye movements using electrooculography. 27 patients with PD, 5 patients with PSP and 52 healthy volunteers took part in the study. To analyze aging dynamic all participants were divided into matching age groups.
In healthy volunteers the mean saccade latency and the percentage of multistep saccades increase significantly after the age of 60. Values of these characteristics in patients with PD significantly exceed the values in the corresponding age groups of healthy subjects. The duration of single saccades depends on age to a smaller extent and does not change in patients with PD. In patients with PSP eye movement abnormalities are more salient than in patients with PD. Restriction of vertical gaze in PSP appears even on early stages of disease. As the disease progresses oculomotor abnormalities became more pronounced: decreasing of saccades amount, limitation of vertical and horizontal gaze and eye movements mismatch were revealed.
Thereby the saccades characteristics analysis allows us to reveal the rate of neurodegeneration that may be useful for early diagnostics and treatment control.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
What is the relationship between the mental lexicon and categorization? Many studies show that the names of objects speed up category learning. Our previous experiment demonstrated that the names of an object feature’s location also help while learning rules of categorization. In the present experiment, we evaluated the manifestation of this effect in ontogenesis, having compared the process of development of new concepts in 7- and 9-year-old children. Participants were supposed to learn to distinguish between two groups of aliens by signs on the foot. We varied the location of signs on the silhouette of the foot. In the high nameability condition, signs were located in places on a foot silhouette that were more nameable (e.g., “heel”). In the low nameability condition, signs were located in places without common names (e.g., “Achilles’ tendon”). The category rule included relevant places for signs. We found that 9-year-old participants were more successful in learning new categories in the high nameability condition than in the low nameability condition. However, 7-year-old participants did not demonstrate differences in the two conditions. These results are discussed in relation to the development of the ability to form new categories in the course of ontogenesis.