Языковые изменения в процессе старения
Language decline in normally-advancing age is most likely seen in problems with lexical retrieval and comprehension. The lexical retrieval problems are most commonly for proper nouns, but may occur as well for other substantives and even idioms. Comprehension problems are more for auditory than written materials, particularly with complex text or in stressful (e.g. noisy) conditions. Discourse patterns may change as well, depending on the nature of the tasks eliciting them. For elderly individuals who display mild cognitive impairment or progress to Alzheimer’s disease, lexical-retrieval problems and comprehension diffi culties can be more severe, and all aspects of language and communication can be impaired in the later stages of Alzheimer’s dementia. Age-related language changes have been explained as languagespecifi c or related to cognitive abilities such as memory and inhibition, and have been attributed to areas of the brain that undergo substantial age-related changes.