Interactive processing of contrastive expressions by Russian children
Children’s ability to interpret color adjective noun phrases (e.g., red butterfly) as contrastive was examined in an eyetracking study with 6-year-old Russian children. Pitch accent placement (on the adjective red, or on the noun butterfly) was compared within a visual context containing two red referents (a butterfly and a fox) when only one of them had a contrast member (a purple butterfly) or when both had a contrast member (a purple butterfly and a grey fox). Contrastiveness was enhanced by the Russianspecific ‘split constituent’ construction (e.g., Red put butterfly . . .) in which a contrastive interpretation of the color term requires pitch accent on the adjective, with the nonsplit sentences serving as control. Regardless of the experimental manipulations, children had to wait until hearing the noun (butterfly) to identify the referent, even in splits. This occurred even under conditions for which the prosody and the visual context allow adult listeners to infer the relevant contrast set and anticipate the referent prior to hearing the noun (accent on the adjective in 1-Contrast scenes). Pitch accent on the adjective did facilitate children’s referential processing, but only for the nonsplit constituents. Moreover, visual contexts that encouraged the correct contrast set (1-Contrast) only facilitated referential processing after hearing the noun, even in splits. Further analyses showed that children can anticipate the reference like adults but only when the contrast set is made salient by the preceding supportive discourse, that is, when the inference about the intended contrast set is provided by the preceding utterance.
Working memory (WM) is essential to auditory comprehension; thus, understanding of the nature of WM is vital to research and clinical practice to support people with aphasia. A key challenge in assessing WM in people with aphasia is related to the myriad deficits prevalent in aphasia, including deficits in attention, hearing, vision, speech, and motor control of the limbs. Eye-tracking methods augur well for developing alternative WM tasks and measures in that they enable researchers to address many of the potential confounds inherent in tasks traditionally used to study WM. Additionally, eye-tracking tasks allow investigation of trade-off patterns between storage and processing in complex span tasks, and provide on-line response measures. The goal of the study was to establish concurrent and discriminative validity of a novel eye movement WM task in individuals with and without aphasia. Additionally, we aimed to explore the relationship between WM and general language measures, and determine whether trade-off between storage and processing is captured via eye-tracking measures. Participants with (n=28) and without (n=32) aphasia completed a novel eye movement WM task. This task, incorporating natural response requirements, was designed to circumvent potential confounds due to concomitant speech, motor, and attention deficits. The task consisted of a verbal processing component intermixed with presentation of colors and symbols for later recall. Performance on this task was indexed solely via eye movements. Additionally, participants completed a modified listening span task that served to establish concurrent validity of the eye-tracking WM task. Performance measures of the novel eye movement WM task demonstrated concurrent validity with another established measure of WM capacity – the modified listening span task. Performance on the eye-tracking task discriminated effectively between participants with and without aphasia. No consistent relationship was observed between WM scores and Western Aphasia Battery aphasia quotient and subtest scores for people with aphasia. Additionally, eye tracking measures yielded no trade-off between processing and storage for either group of participants. Results support the feasibility and validity of employing a novel eye-tracking method to index WM capacity in participants with and without aphasia. Further research is required to determine the nature of the relationship between WM, as indexed through this method, and specific aspects of language impairments in aphasia.
This paper is aimed to show crucial points of Quine’s language acquisition conception that were criticized by Noam Chomsky. Willard Van Orman Quine tried to build a language theory in a behavioristic way using such terms as: stimulus, reaction and reinforcement. He thought that language acquisition by children could be explained as the process of ontogenesis of reference. N. Chomsky mainly objected to behaviorism and showed its weak explanatory force in language theory.
This book is a collection of papers written by Russian and foreign linguists to highlight the different aspects of bilingualism. Much attention is paid to the early simultaneous and successive bilingualism in children; however, adults speaking several languages in natural settings as well as in classroom are also considered. Some chapters are concentrated on language attrition — an opposite process to language acquisition that happens when a native language for some reasons is not more used for communication. The data from Azerbaijan, English, Finnish, Georgian, German, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Urum and Uzbek served as a base for comparison. This volume is addressed to linguists, psychologists, speech pathologists and teachers working with bilingual children, as well as to their parents.
The joint workshop on Natural Language Processing (NLP) for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) & NLP for Language Acquisition (LA) – shorthand NLP4CALL&LA – is an effort to provide a debate space and collaboration between two closely related areas. Both focus on language acquisition, related resources and technologies, that can support research of the language learning process as well as aim to bring interdisciplinary advantage to the field. Individual workshop areas are outlined below.
By using tongue twisters from a variety of folk traditions, the article demonstrates how the inevitable failure to perform a tongue twister flawlessly consists of the performer's inability to differentiate between phonemic, semantic, morphological and syntactic homonyms, thus mirroring the experience of a child learning his/her native language. The article suggests that tongue twisters serve as an artistic means for the linguistically competent performer to revisit that earlier and forgotten stage in language acquisition.
The paper provides a review of present-day studies on the problem of pilots’ performance in various flight conditions, with a focus on their methodology. Conceptual frameworks of the studies (concepts of working capacity, functional state and mental workload) are discussed, and different objective and subjective measures and methods used are described. Eye-tracking is regarded with special attention as a promising tool able to examine the internal mechanisms of pilots’ performance. The paper hints to the importance of systemic methodological approach to pilots’ performance assessment and proposes the direction for further research in the field of aviation psychophysiology.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.