‘A Shop Window Where You Can Choose the Goods You Like’: Finnish industrial and trade fairs in the USSR, 1950s–1960s
This article examines the Finnish industrial and trade fairs held in the Soviet Union in the context of Finnish–Soviet trade and scientific–technical cooperation in the 1950s and 1960s. While primarily focused on fairs, it also discusses different activities that accompanied them, such as lectures, visits, and negotiations between Finnish traders and Soviet officials and specialists. This study illustrates how such first-hand contact played an important role in Finnish– Soviet communications. First, they helped Finnish producers showcase their goods and technologies directly to Soviet buyers in various ministries and organizations. Second, these contacts included diverse activities such as face-toface contacts, lectures, and seminars, being a means of technology transfer from Finland to the USSR. Finally, although they were commercial interactions without explicit ideological purposes – like many international exhibitions of the last century – Finnish fairs demonstrated a technological gap between Finland and the USSR.
Principles of constructing balanced system of logistic efficiency are viewed. (BSC) Basic advantages, which allow to implement management on the base of logistic BSC are shown. Methodology of calculating logistic KPI in trade company on the example of warehousing business-process, in particular consignment, completion and dispatch at distributing center of retail network is adduced.
It is shown, that key indices of activity of other subdivisions of logistic department: operational department, transport-forwarding department, control-auditorial group should also be included into logistic BSC in trade company. Designed system of indices is connected with system of motivating personnel, whilst individual rewarding for positive results is tied to completion of established standards of KPI. Examples of calculating influence of logistics on return on capital basing on model of strategic profit.
The article addresses the G20 compliance with its long-standing commitment to refrain from protectionist measures. The paper attempts to measure and compare the results of individual G20 members in different timeframes between the summits. The analysis is based on the data from the WTO reports on G20 trade and trade-related measures. The author believes that the effectiveness of G20 in this field of cooperation remains low, which is substantiated by a large number of protectionist measures adopted by the G20 members in the period between Washington summit in 2008 and Cannes summit in 2011. The publication is prepared within the framework of a joint project "Enhancing Effectiveness of Russia's Participation in G8, G20 and BRICS in Compliance with the Russian Federation National Priorities in Global Governance and Developing Recommendations for the Russian Presidency of G20 in 2013" implementing by Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) and International Organisations Research Institute (IORI) of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in 2012.
The paper presents research question and some results devoted to analyses of companies’ strategic processes in international business networks.
The historical changes in Central and Eastern Europe demanded suitable paths for the transition from centrally planned to market based economies. The lack of relevant experience added to the challenge, giving rise to the incalculable risks of implementing untested policies. By focusing on monetary policy, trade, and convergence, this volume addresses some of the most urgent economic policy issues in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The article makes a professional image rekonstruiruktsiya teacher. The author believes that the main advantage and at the same time the main function of the teacher - to serve the people. Its content is the enlightenment of the ministry, decorated in a messianic view. The messiah means complete self-denial and penance.
Globalization and growing competition force companies to look for new markets for their business. International operations give companies an opportunity to use their resources more efficiently and simultaneously the internationalization processes increase a firm‘s risks and strategic problems. The choice of an international strategy defines a company‘s priorities on partnership development, which are necessary for a quicker understanding of new markets‘ features, and also for decreasing strategic and commercial business risks. The strategic process is influenced by a number of factors, such as institutional and sociopolitical, and also business-sector specifics and national culture. Strategy development and implementation together with stable network relations define company‘s success in a new market. The paper presents the main results of an empirical research, devoted to analyses of international companies‘strategies and factors, affecting strategic choice and implementation process in the Russian market.
This comparative study shows how the revival of geopolitics came not despite, but because of, the end of the Cold War. Disoriented in their self-understandings and conception of external role by the events of 1989, many European foreign policy actors used the determinism of geopolitical thought to find their place in world politics quickly. The book develops a constructivist methodology to study causal mechanisms, and its comparative approach allows for a broad assessment of some of the fundamental dynamics of European security.