Глазодвигательные параметры стрелков из лука в процессе прицеливания
The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female). Authors have found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.
In an eye-tracking study we tested the hypothesis that comprehension is facilitated by a match between the order of the verb and its arguments in a sentence and the order of the actual sensorimotor interaction with these objects (for example, in the phrase put the bag into the box, the order of the arguments cor- responds to the order of motor actions: take the bag, put it into the box) could facilitate comprehension of such constructions. We tested 40 native Russian speakers in a visual world sentence-picture match- ing task. In prepositional constructions, there was no difference between conditions that matched or mis- matched sensorimotor stereotypes, whereas in instrumental constructions, sensorimotor stereotypes facil- itated comprehension.
The article is devoted to the motivation to run or to end of young athletes career. This article describes the steps of sports career. "Sports Enjoyment" concept is considered as one of the motivating factors. In a sample of 225 athletes from 28 different sports, we tested the questionnaire "The Role of Enjoyment in the End of Sports Career" and identified factors associated with possible quiting the sport. This method provides information on the subjective reasons for retiring from the sport, which relate primarily to the loss of pleasure in sport activities. The study shows that сhildren aged 13-14 years old are ready to leave the sport on average 26% more than the beginners, or adult athletes. This method is aimed at forecasting the career of professional athlete, and therefore it seems so be useful to coachers and psychologists, as it can give them necessary information about the sportsman priorities he is guided when deciding whether to continue or end the sports careers.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.