Integrative systematics of northern and Arctic nudibranchs of the genus Dendronotus (Mollusca, Gastropoda), with descriptions of three new species.
The taxonomy of common northern nudibranch molluscs of the genus Dendronotus in the vast cold regions of Eurasia remains largely unknown. Abundant material collected in many localities from the Barents Sea, via the Arctic region, to the north-west Pacific was analysed for the first time. An integrated approach combining morphological and ontogenetic data with molecular four-gene (COI, 16S, H3, and 28S) analysis reveals seven species, including three previously undescribed. Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius, 1774) and Dendronotus dalli Bergh, 1879 were commonly considered as amphiboreal species; however, according to this study they are restricted to the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, respectively. In the north-west Pacific two new species were discovered, Dendronotus kamchaticus sp. nov. and Dendronotus kalikal sp. nov., that are externally similar to D. frondosus, but that show significant distance according to molecular analysis and are considerably different in radular morphology. In the North Atlantic a new species Dendronotus niveus sp. nov., sibling to North Pacific D. dalli, is revealed. The separate status of North Atlantic Dendronotus lacteus (Thompson, 1840) is confirmed, including considerable range extension. The essential similarity of early ontogenetic stages of radular development common for species with disparate adult radular morphology (such as D. frondosus and D. dalli) is shown, and its importance for taxonomy is discussed.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of ‘give’ (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
These proceedings include papers on subjects from a wide number of areas including theoretical linguistics, translation, computational linguistics, natural language processing, and applied linguistics, focusing on a variety of languages, ranging from familiar Indo-European languages to Mandarin Chinese, Wolof, and Dene Sųɬiné. In order to make the papers available to the wider research community, these proceedings are being published electronically and distributed freely at http://www.meaningtext.net
Macedonian possesses a rich system of affixes, some of them are considered to be completely synonymous. This is the case for diminutive suffixes serving to build diminutives from feminine nouns: there are four suffixes, three of them are of protoslavonic origin (namely, suffixes -ka, -ca, -ica) and one - -ichka - is considered to be of a more recent descent. As those suffixes have virtually the same range of meanings, a question arises as to their rivalry. Our research revealed that not all of the suffixes in question have the potential to combine with all the stem types. Their combinability is restrained by their morphonological properties and these constraints form a system of suffixal distribution. Having studied a corpus of over 500 diminutives, we came to the conclusion that suffix -ka primarily serves as a substitute suffix in the cases where other suffixes cannot combine, suffix -ca can solely combine with a single stem type (stems of feminine nouns ending with a consonant, former i-stems), and suffixes -ichka and -ica, possessing similar properties, are engaged in a rivalry which apparently is settled in favour of the former.
This paper is an overview of the so-called second genitive in Russian, a nominal form available for a minority of Russian nouns but widely used with these nouns in certain contexts. In many ways, the second genitive is a secondary case. Thus, it may always be substituted with a regular genitive form, while the opposite is not true. A major subset of the contexts where the second genitive may be used fits into what is known as a functional category of partitive, so this form is sometimes called Russian partitive. To a certain extent, indeed, the second genitive is the form with which the regular genitive may be substituted in partitive contexts. The analysis of the distribution of the second genitive shows, however, that the partitive meaning is not the only function of this form. Not less if not more widespread are uses in combinations with prepositions. These and other types of contexts should be taken into account to build a comprehensive picture of the category distribution and functional load.
Any company consists of business processes, and enterprise management is actually performed by managing them. Every process requires proper information support and cannot be managed successfully without it, hence neither can the whole company. However creating such support system is quite a serious problem. Content analysis based on corporative taxonomies use is a simple but very effective way of enterprise knowledge management. It provides serious competitive advantages and new leverages of business process optimization. Being combined with sophisticated entropy approach it gives unbelievable results of real time on-line business process monitoring. General idea consists of an interpretation of well-known Schenon theory of message entropy calculation on a basis of standard alphabet into widening standard alphabet in a set of business process instances. Finally we get a procedure of getting a set of taxonomies which create a basis for a business process alphabet and a calculation of a real entropy in the business process transactions which itself reflects a stability and correctness of business process execution. Thus here is the simplest method of BPM practice, and the most inexpensive.
The form whose main function is to express indirect commands, called the third person Imperative, Jussive or Exhortative, when compared to the prototypical (second person) Imperative, shows semantic and formal similarities and distinctions at the same time. The study describes formal and functional patterns of Jussive and places this category within the typology of the related categories, such as Imperative and Optative, based on data from six East Caucasian languages (Archi, Agul, Akhvakh, Chechen, Icari and Kumyk). Five formal patterns of Jussive are attested in these languages, including a specialized form, constructions derived from want, from tell him to do and from make him do and the Optative. Jussive forms may express such meanings as third person command, indirect causation, permission, indifference towards the accomplishment of an action and an assumption. While the Jussive is crucially different from the second person Imperative in that it introduces a third participant, this article shows that it is the addressee, not a third person, who is the central participant of a Jussive situation from both formal and functional points of view.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.