От глобальной коррупционной парадигмы к изучению неформальных практик: различие в подходах аутсайдеров и инсайдеров
The article compares two approaches to the analysis of corruption: a global corruption paradigm – a downstream view on corruption promoted by international organisations and policy makers, the so-called outsiders, and analysis of informal practices – an upstream, or bottom-up, perspective of insiders, which contexualises motives and meaning of corrupt practices. The global corruption paradigm rests on the premises that corruption can be defined, measured and controlled. Since the 1990s, data on corruption have been systematically collected and monitored, yet there has been little progress in combatting the phenomenon across the globe. Success cases are rare, and policy makers are increasingly dissatisfied with the existing indicators and approaches to anticorruption policyies. On the one hand, the paper articulates the critique of assumptions, preconceptions and methodology implicit in the prevailing ‘corruption paradigm’. We question the cultural and historical neutrality of the definition of corruption; problems with the measurement of corruption; and the implications for policy-making. On the other hand, the paper argues for the ‘disaggregation’ of the corruption paradigm and necessity to integrate local knowledge and insiders’ perspectives into corruption studies. We argue that the combination of the two approaches will provide for more effective ways of tackling the challenges of corruption, especially in endemically corrupt systems.