Стабилизация линейных стохастических систем с дисконтированием: моделирование долгосрочных эффектов применения оптимальных стратегий управления
We consider a problem of stabilization of linear stochastic control systems. The quadratic cost functional measures the total loss resulting from deviation of the process and control from their target levels. It includes the decision maker’s time preference expressed by means of discount function. We study the long-run impacts of average optimal policies in terms of mean-square deviation of optimal trajectory from its target and also in an almost-sure sense.
The paper is devoted to the problem of stabilizing a linear stochastic control system. Thequadratic cost functional measures the total loss caused by deviation from the fixed (target) levels and control trajectories, as well as a decision-maker’s time preferences expressed in the discount function. The long-term impacts of the use of decision-making, optimal on average, over an infinite-time horizon are taken as estimates of the deviation of the optimal trajectory from its target in the mean square sense and with the probability of 1.
This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic factors—particularly, the rate of time preferences and alcohol consumption in Russia. The rate of time preferences shows an individual’s willingness to delay the utility from consumption to future periods of time. The relationship between this rate and indicators of alcohol consumption is examined separately for men and women. We find significant differences in men’s and women’s patterns of consumption of alcohol. Our findings suggest that the rate of time preferences, along with age, educational level, income, place of residence, and health substantially, affects an individual’s decision to drink alcohol. We show that employment status is endogenous to alcohol consumption and that estimating a system of binary equations is necessary.
We study a dynamic price model in an economy with multiplicative uncertainty. The cost corresponding to a particular control strategy includes agents’ time preference. Almost sure overtaking optimal control is derived and its properties are investigated.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.