The impact of visual design and response formats on data quality in a web survey of MOOC students
The objective of this paper is to gain more evidence regarding how the design of the rating scales and open-ended questions influence data quality in Web surveys of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) students. We present the results of four full-factorial randomized experiments that investigate the impact of the following factors: 1) order of response options; 2) user interface for rating questions 3) layout of question's options; and 4) size of answer boxes in open-ended questions. We found that responses to scalar questions with ascending (from negative to positive) or descending (from positive to negative) order of response options do not differ substantially. The use of the radio button format allows a reduction in the percentage of respondents who choose the “Don't know” option and makes responding to questions less challenging in comparison with slider and text box interfaces. There are no significant differences in the answers of respondents who completed questionnaires with a vertical or horizontal orientation of the questions' options. In addition, respondents who answer the questions with larger answer boxes are more likely to write longer comments.
This article conducts a study of multiplying the credit rating agencies efforts. These opportunities are practically important in connection with implementation of the IRB approach. The author considers Russian commercial banks as one of the main examples of using proposal methods, so in addition to literature overview the paper includes review of the Russian banking system and rating activities.
Firstly, the author discussed the rating scales mapping for comparison of rating estimations of different agencies. Then, he proposed the distance method with the connected extremum problem to find compatible mapping functions for rating scale correspondence.
Secondly, the paper considered the possibility of rating model system creation for financial institutions. The bank rating models in order logit interpretation are discussed simultaneously for resident (Russian) and non-resident institutions. In addition, the specification of bank models’ characteristics and their quality were considered for the three largest international rating agencies also as econometrical models for corporates and sovereign were presented.
The results reviewed can help to apply basic instruments for practical applications of such models to the risk management problems, which are based on the public information and remote estimation of ratings. Commercial banks and government financial regulators may be perspective consumers of the proposed methods.
Investors are being encouraged after the global crisis to reduce their dependence on the largest credit rating agencies for risk assessments of companies and securities. Comparing risk assessments from different sources rapidly becomes non-trivial when more than three credit rating agencies are involved. We propose a method for comparing rating scales, and hence constructing correspondence diagrams and tables, thereby treating the rating scales used by different agencies as objects of study. Scales are compared by looking at sets of ratings assigned to similar entities (hereinafter banks) with the assumption that the risk being measured by each credit rating agency is the same for a given rated entity at a given point in time. Studying international bank ratings for a five-year period shows that there are subtle differences for the largest credit rating agencies. A mechanism for constructing mappings between scales could lead to more competition with new credit rating agencies.
This paper summarizes the progress of the online education for the recent 15 years. The trends detected include multi-source courseware, massive education, intensive analytics, professional marketing and high portability, to name a few. Since our experience in the online education is over a decade, it makes sense to analyze how the technological progress and market pace changed the appearance and lifecycle of the online courses. We analyze the key factors that influence the learning process, make early conclusions and discuss perspectives of the rapidly emerging massive online courses.
Article proposes comparative studies of credit ratings of the leading Russian and international rating agencies. We analyze approaches and the possibility of comparison of agencies’ rating scales. Purpose of this analysis is to propose method and describe the criteria for comparison of rating scales and the possibility of using standard econometric models. We demonstrate the dynamics and development of rating business in Russia, problems and prospects of creating the unified rating area. A detailed comparative analysis of rating scales is focused on Russian banks. Database for empirical study includes 370 banks with at least one contact rating in the period 2006–2010. Similar research has also been carried out for international banks on the sample of 1995–2010 years. It consists of representatives of more than 80 countries. Conclusions provided for ten most commonly used bank ratings in Russia including scales of largest international rating agencies. Results may be used by regulators and commercial banks as part of the risk management methodologies and tender indicators.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.