Competing, collaborating or controlling? Comparing benchmarking in European local government
The way that local authorities in OECD countries compare and benchmark their performance varies widely. This paper explains some of the reasons behind the variations. The current local government benchmarking schemes in Europe—their governance, coverage and impact—largely depend on the institutional characteristics of the respective administrative and local government systems (in other words, the starting conditions).
Increased attention and focus has been laid on the strategic importance of intellectual capital for modern management. However, intangible resources appear difficult to measure. Today, there are several methods, both financial and nonfinancial ones that allow managing them, to provide benchmarking and analyze its value added function (Sveiby, 2007). The rare investigations of intellectual capital in Russian enterprises show that “Almost in all industries it is still more profitable to invest in tangible assets rather than in intangible ones” (Volkov, Garanina, 2007). Still, some investigations on the micro level show that there are enterprises with high level of technological capital and innovative activity. The researchers called them “innovative leaders” and empirically proved that they have high labour productivity and are awarded by market through extra profit (Gonchar et al., 2010). Using the research sample and Pulic’s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) the authors investigate empirically the dynamics and structure of VAIC, and study the relation between the intellectual capital and indicators of organizational performance, such as labour productivity, sales growth and profitability. Additionally, the VAIC™ model allows analysing the role of human, structural and physical capital. This paper outlines the study based on 350 Russian industrial enterprises’ annual statistical and account reports from 2005 through 2007. Besides, the authors adopt the VAIC calculation according to the Russian accounting system’s specifications and limitations. The findings support the hypothesis that a company’s intellectual capital influences favourably the organizational performance, and may indicate future competitiveness. A proof showing that the explanatory power of models is higher when considering the additional variables such as investment in fixed capital, R&D expenditures and a company’s size is represented. The results extend the understanding of the intellectual capital role in creation of sustainable advantages for companies in developing economies where different technological advancements may bring different implications for organizational value creation efficiency.
Nowadays business organizations pay more attention to human resources management. HR departments are more involved in development and implementation of HR strategy. Because of change of HR department role the need in its evaluation is increasing. The actual problem of research in this sphere is to study how HR department assessment influences performance of business organizations. Based on the analysis of international literature several empirical studies devoted to HR department assessment and performance of companies were determined. At the same time this topic is not studied yet in Russian environment. The objective of this paper is to study international research devoted to HR department assessment and its influence on performance of business organizations and analyze Russian specificity. An analysis of international research demonstrates the existence of positive correlation between HR department assessment and performance of companies. In order to study Russian environment the data of business organizations of different industries was collected. Then it was analyzed by statistical computer program SPSS. The research conducted in Russian business organizations has not provided with the evidence of correlation between HR department assessment and performance of business organizations.
In this article the influence of publicly declarative values on the performance of top fifty banks in Russia is analyzed. For determination of correlations an index of corporate values (CV-Index) is calculated as well as relationship between this index and financial indicators of banks are examined in SPSS program. In order to calculate CV-Index the detailed research of banks’ websites, codes of ethics and corporate behavior is conducted. All the defined corporate values are categorized into seventeen groups. The research has confirmed a statistically significant correlation between CV-Index and net profit of banks.
The second part of the scientific monograph contains the results of analyzis the effectiveness of corporate risk management and internal control systems. The scientific literature contains a fairly large number of methods that allow to evaluate the effectiveness of managerial decisions within the company, but most of them are designed to formally assess the functionality of a particular system of risk management in relation to the world wide "best practices". The monograph presents the recommendations on the organization of integrated risk management methodology and assess its effectiveness in accordance with modern trends in decision-making, such as short-termizm focus on short-term business profitability. The theoretical propositions supported by empirical calculations, analytical studies and practical recommendations. The emphasis is on managing business uncertainty, and as a result, growth in the discount rate and the reduction of investment attractiveness as a result of lack of transparency of administrative processes and the lack of clear criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the processes. This monograph is intended for students, teachers and scientists, researchers, and professionals operating in the field of risk management.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.