Ценностная палитра современного российского общества
Based upon the results of the all- Russian representative survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2014, the paper explores norms and values of Russians. According to the study, Russia is characterized by a high degree of differentiation of values people are guided in everyday life: both rational culture, based on self-expression and initiative, and a culture of passive adaptation to the existing environment live side by side. The degree of the value differentiation of norms reflecting the views of the country’s internal and external image is much lower; and the statism values still prevail over the liberal ones. What brings Russians with different value systems together is the common need for social justice as the key purpose of the country`s development; at the same time, the representations about its content differ depending on the group.
The article considers topical issues of foreign language teaching seen from the axiological angle of different cultures’ pedagogical paradigms and describes some typical characteristics of a number of pedagogical systems. A close attention is paid to various manifestations of the value components characteristic of various educational systems which reveal the existence of an axiological paradigm shift in teaching foreign languages.
The author focuses her attention on the analysis of the general and the particular in the adaptation of specialists on the basis of the data collected in Russia by the NRI HSE in the course of monitoring the population’s economic situation and health (RLMS-HSE), comprising a vast body of classified information on the changes in the conditions and quality of life of the Russian people.
In article the picture of changes of standard-values system of the Russian society is presented. It is shown that, remaining as a whole neoetatcratic, it in last years has undergone the essential changes testifying to its slow washing out traditionalist kernel.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.