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Article

ЗАЩИТА ГРАЖДАНСКОГО НАСЕЛЕНИЯ В МИРОТВОРЧЕСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ООН: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ

Сергунин А. А., Конышев В. Н., Кубышкин А. И.
Importance The research examines the specifics of the UN peacekeeping operations. Peacekeeping campaigns often cause civilian casualties, with conventional peacekeeping functions of separating the belligerent parties being insufficient and actually acquiring a widened interpretation. This draws attention to methods and limits of interfering into affairs of the States that relate to the domestic policy, being protected with their sovereignty. Objectives The main objective of the research is to find conceptual, institutional, practical and political factors that cause the failure of many peacekeeping missions. Methods The article reviews reasons for escalating the issue of civilian protection: the nature of contemporary wars that may be qualified as ‘cold wars’, involvement of non-governmental armed groups in conflicts, deliberate conversion of civilians into victims of violence. We trace historical roots and trails and the evolution of the responsibility to protect concept and its substance, which is suggested to supersede the discredited concept of humanitarian intervention. We note attempts of the USA and its NATO allies to disseminate their own understanding and interpretation of the concept, using it for ousting undesirable regimes. Therefore, peacekeeping, in fact, more often than not, is an excuse for pursuing other political goals. Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that, the UN should forge a common conceptual framework that would determine the need to protect the civilian population. The UN concept of the responsibility to protect should be further specified and clarified in order to prevent the peacekeeping concept from absorbing any political connotations that would be beneficial for some States. As the peacekeeping process acquires new roles, efficiency criteria of missions should be elaborated. We prove the need to improve and enhance the mechanism for liaison of the UN and regional organizations engaged for peacekeeping purposes.