Каменная архитектура Каргополья начала XVIII века
The article “The Masonry Architecture of Kargopol’ in the Early 18th Century” deals with one of many regional architectural traditions of Russia in the 18th century. Only three churches were built in Kargopol’ in this period, and they have never been subject of detailed research. The only surviving building the katholikon of Oshevensk monastery (1707–1734) is the key artifact. The author argues, that the church receives very sophisticated composition due to desire of its founders to copy the architectural forms of the famous Solovki monastery. The second church, that of the Spasski monastery (1707–1717), located in the town of Kargopol’, is now destroyed and only can be seen on some old photos. These photos were discovered in the archive by the author and were published for the first time in this article. Unfortunately, we have no images of the third, Uspenski church in Kargopol’ (1715–1730) which was also destroyed. Its forms are roughly described on the basis of archive documents. The author concludes, the Kargopol’ architecture is unique because it is the most conservative one in the early 18th century Russia. The buildings still represent Post-Byzantine tradition some 30 years after the introduction of European Mannerist and Baroque forms into Russian architecture.
This article examines popular participation in the anti-bolshevik movement in Arkhangel’sk province of the Russian North during the first months of the Civil War. Using the example of local administration, mobilisation and bread supply it demonstrates how the particularities of the revolution in the province influenced the growth of the White movement and how people were able partly to adjust the anti-bolshevik regime to their own needs. It thus shifts the traditional scholarly focus from the bolshevik-controlled centre to the Russian periphery, and from elite party politics to the role of population in shaping the White regime.
The article was devoted the analysis adaptation strategies of the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox Churches to the new social and political conditions in the last decades. The author comes to the conclusion that Russian Orthodox Church chooses strategy of conservation to the new social and political conditions and Roman Catholic Church makes decision to follow democratic adaptation strategies.
This article analyzes grass-root politics in the Russian Civil War, challenging the traditional assumption that the Bolsheviks with their program of radical revolutionary change enjoyed greater popularity than their White adversaries. On the example of the Northern region, it demonstrates that the local «counter-revolutionary» government commanded considerable sympathies of the provincial population. This popularity was based on the government's ability to supply the population of this non-agricultural province with imported grain, to provide military protection and arms for self-defense. Ultimately, the article strives to explain the outcome of the Civil War not by conflicting ideologies and policies, but by practical circumstances and local factors that on a grass-root level conditioned changing political loyalties.
The chapter focuses on one of the ways to communicate with the sacred popular among contemporary Russian Orthodox believers – written appealing to the saints (letters and notes). Although not happy at all about this habit, the Church managers allow to publish these letters in the parish newspapers and web-sites and in other church mass-media. Analysis of publications of the letters addressed to Saint Xenia of Petersburg proves that the Church publishes them as a part of its advertising campaign targeted on those people who prefer irregular religiosity (pilgrimages, letters to the saint, etc) to traditional regular parish life. The chapter develops Peter Berger’s metaphor of religious market.
In this book the author explores the social, economic and legal status of the Russian lower clergy (priests, deacons and sacristans), its role in the parish life and the institutional history of the Russian parish in the 16-17th centuries. The institution of proprietary or private churches (German Eigenkirchenwesen) is analysed and compared with the analogous phenomena in Byzantium and Western and Central Europe. Special attention is given to state legislation and policy, which influenced the status of the lower clergy, and the formation of the clerical estate (dukhovnoe soslovie). Various sources have been examined: the tsar’s immunity charters, cadastres, private contracts, letters, literary works, materials from the archives of the bishop’s chancelleries etc.
The paper explores the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) parish-based social work specifics. The Russian government call for Church participation in welfare provision on the one hand and the emphasize on the social work in church life, made by Patriarchy, on the other, are followed by the attempts of the parish-based social practices formalization. Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data on parish-based social work in Russia, authors make the evaluation of the ROC’s social work scope in the country and characterize this’ activity specific features in comparison with the professional social work. The article comes to the conclusion, that the bigger part of the parish-based social work in Russia is performed as informal practices of daily mutual aid by non-professionals and it doesn’t fit narrow frame of the professional aid to the needy. The authors suggest, that the attempts of the church social work professionalization, such as formal reports and quantitative indicators may push parishes towards the minimization of their informal social activity, so significant for general population.