The grandiose Dalmatov Monastery in the Urals has been built for so long that a stonemasons team (‘artel’) was formed there. The phenomenon of that artel was in its work through all Siberia in 1730-s – 1760-s when it marked a plenty of churches with the specific Uralian Mannerist decoration. The churches in Dalmatovo (1754–1763) and Shirokovskoye (1784–1793) near the monastery follow not only the decoration but also the iconography of the cathedral. In the remote Kondinski Monastery (1731–1758) the participation of the Dalmatov artel was seen in the decoration only. In Yeniseysk the same artel built the Nativity Church (1755–1758), but the paper argues that some other churches and bell towers were also built by it. There, masters made a free interpretation of the Uralian decoration and iconography which led later to the formation of the Yeniseysk Baroque thanks to the additional mixture of some Tobolsk and Irkutsk forms. It is possible to attribute also a church in modern Ulan Ude (1741–1785) that plays a key role in the developing of the architecture of Zabaykalie to the same to Dalmatov artel.
The article “The Masonry Architecture of Kargopol’ in the Early 18th Century” deals with one of many regional architectural traditions of Russia in the 18th century. Only three churches were built in Kargopol’ in this period, and they have never been subject of detailed research. The only surviving building the katholikon of Oshevensk monastery (1707–1734) is the key artifact. The author argues, that the church receives very sophisticated composition due to desire of its founders to copy the architectural forms of the famous Solovki monastery. The second church, that of the Spasski monastery (1707–1717), located in the town of Kargopol’, is now destroyed and only can be seen on some old photos. These photos were discovered in the archive by the author and were published for the first time in this article. Unfortunately, we have no images of the third, Uspenski church in Kargopol’ (1715–1730) which was also destroyed. Its forms are roughly described on the basis of archive documents. The author concludes, the Kargopol’ architecture is unique because it is the most conservative one in the early 18th century Russia. The buildings still represent Post-Byzantine tradition some 30 years after the introduction of European Mannerist and Baroque forms into Russian architecture.
The article is dedicated to plasticizers that are the most important components in latex compositions. Plasticizer EDOS is an effective plasticizer of rubber aqueous dispersions, simultaneously functioning as non-ionic PAV. From the point of their stability in the process of storage and exploitation for latexes the use of plasticizer EDOS with the lower content of hydroxyl groups is more prospective.
In today's world a term "ecological architecture" is defined not only by standards that aim to prevent negative impact from environment to a human being, but also by standards that aim to minimize human impact on the environment. In traditional Japanese architecture the three core elements — human being, building and nature—are not opposed to each other, but coexist in a constant dialogue.
This paper is aims to describe a new attitude emerging in contemporary Japanese architecture, which combine experience and perspective of the past with the present innovations. Projects of Taira Nishizawa Architects, SUEP. (Yoko and Hirokazu Suemitsu) and DESIGN NEUOB (Hiroshi Ota and Toru Kashihara) are examined.
The mathematical model and simulation results of the field of concentration radon in the soil near the underground part of the building presented. The model presented in the form of the solution of system of the equations of the two-dimensional diffusive transport of radon in the soil. Established regularities of the distribution of radon concentration in the soil depending on width and building depth. Defined ratio of the average values of radon concentration in the planes contact of the building with ground to the radon potential of the soil.
In the 20th century Japanese house has undergone a tremendous metamorphosis transforming from established vernacular typology to a vast range of different architectural approaches. This process took form of complex interaction between Japanese vernacular and new western dwelling. The purpose of this research is to identify the origins for the space organisation of contemporary Japanese house. This has been done by examining three houses of architects A. Raymond (1926), K. Tsuchiura (1935), and R. Maekawa (1942) with a focus on correlation between architectural space and social meaning of dwelling space in Japanese tradition.
One of the most significant current discussions in urban planning and sustainability is a new approach to urban agriculture. Urban agriculture is becoming a recognizable feature to support such landscapes and to make cities more self-sufficient. Japanese, which experienced rapid urbanization during the 1960-80s, also developed a policy on preservation of farming land inside the urbanized areas in a form of ‘productive green land’. The aim of this paper is to review this policy main features of policy and to examine its effect it on urban environment.
The Tobol’sk Baroque is one of many regional architectural traditions in Siberia in the 18th century. Local architects and craftsmen have created some of the most powerful and elegant churches of Baroque style in Russian province. The article argues, the Tobol’sk Baroque had two masterpieces that influenced all subsequent constructions. The first one is the well known Voskresenskaya church in Tobolsk (1759–1776). The second one, Pokrovskaya in Turinsk (1769–after 1774) is virtually unknown despite the fact that it was the masterpiece of Baroque style in Russia. It was indeed very popular as an architectural model, and many similar buildings were created in the Urals and Western Siberia. Some sophisticated churches were built even in the first half of XIX century, when the Baroque has long been out of fashion and the Neoclassical was adopted throughout Russia.
Sierra Gorda is remote mountainous region of Central Mexico. A group of five missionary churches was built here in 1750th-1760th by Franciscans monks led by famous fray Serra, future apostle of California. They had very interesting architectural forms, a mixture of colonial Spanish and local indigenous traditions. They are even listed by UNESCO world heritage, but the studies of their architecture are still few and insufficient. In particular, there is no answer to the question of the origin of their builders. The paper argues, they were not from Mexico city, and not from nearby Querétaro, but from the mining town San Luís Potosí.