Балансирование малых и средних государств
The article studies two traditional realist types of behavior - balancing and bandwagoning. Historically, the policy of balancing was typical to large states - the Great Powers who tried to restrain each other and thus maintain balance of power in the international system. Others - small and medium countries were more likely to bandwagon, because of their inability to resist external pressure from the Great Powers independently. The collapse of the bipolar system introduced significant adjustments. In particular, small and medium countries now have new opportunities to balance external threats. Integration has become a process where it became very clear. On the one hand, integration gave some benefit to these countries, especially within close cooperation and removal of trade barriers with economically more successful and powerful states. However, on the other hand, such a disproportionate convergence created for small and medium countries certain threats. Lack of economic borders increased their dependence on the stronger partners, while creation of supranational branches of power moved this dependence on a political level, as supranational institutions, of course, took into account interests of major subjects of integration primarily. Taking into account that processes of regional integration have been coming increasingly intensive during the last decade, the author targeted to study in this context new behavior of small and medium countries. It was found that balancing and bandwagoning are two components of their integration policy. The ratio of balancing and bandwagoning influences development of the integration process. When small and medium countries accumulate sufficient resources to build the balancing policy, integration slows down. It means that for the successful integration with small and medium countries needs a permanent dominance of bandwagoning over balancing in their integration policy.
The article deals with the problem of Russian science and public mind isolation from western discussion on normative principles of war. Commonplaces in European and American philosophy of war stay unknown in Russia. This situation causes difficulties for the dialogue between Russia and western world. In the same time reversion of Russian philosophy tradition could help with construction of original philosophical doctrine of war and peace.
This collection includes scientific reports presented for participation in the International Conference: "The Evolution of the Global Trade System: problems and prospects" which took place on October 20-22, 2016 in St.Petersburg
This 28-chapter volume brings together academics and practitioners to provide a comprehensive legal, economic and political analysis of the Belt and Road (BRI) initiative that has emerged since 2013 as a key feature of China’s international economic policy. The contributions offer a fundamentally novel approach towards international trade, investment and global governance in an unsettled time of shifting geopolitics when many institutions developed in the West are being called into question. The book covers a broad range of BRI-related international economic law and policy issues, including trade facilitation and connectivity, economics and geopolitics of new trade routes, foreign direct investment law, bilateral investment treaties, free trade agreements, financing of infrastructure, development aid, and international dispute resolution, and regional economic integration.
This collection of papers is a combined initiative of EPF member think tanks and is the result of two round-table discussions under the Regional Integration research stream. The first event, ‘Drivers of Regional Integration’, took place in Cape Town, 25-27 November 2014; the second, ‘Regional Integration and Regional Value Chains’ was held in Moscow, 21 May 2015.
Regional economic integration has been in progress for about 150 years. Modern globalazing economy generated new level of economic integration, Megaregional trade agreement (MRTA). The chapter deals with process of creation of current MRTA, as well as with future interaction between MRTA and WTO.
Central Asia, despite being referred to as a single region, represent five countries with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds and different ways in which political and economic transformation took place in the last twenty five years since independence from the Soviet Union. Within these countries, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan have relatively advanced in market reforms, while Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan still have not completed their transition to a market economy and Tajikistan represents a middle case.
In many respects, historical legacy of the 20th century and unique geographical and geopolitical location did not help Central Asian countries in their efforts for economic development and integration.
After experiencing more than a decade of growth based on hydrocarbon boom, Central Asian countries are faced with increasing challenges resulting from declining commodity prices, trade and migrant remittances. The main policy challenge is to move away from commodity-based growth strategies to macro-oriented diversification and adoption of a broad spectrum of economic, institutional and political reforms. However, structural diversification is easier said than done.
Major obstacles to the political reform and economic diversification efforts in the five Central Asian economies are posed by internal and external geopolitical factors and deeply embedded institutional weaknesses within countries, particularly in areas where economic management interacts with authoritarian political systems and legal institutions. Our analysis suggests five key policy lessons that could serve as points of departure as these countries move ahead.
Regional integration reached a new scale. TransPacific Partnership and Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership will have a profound impact not only on their participants but on the whole World trade as well.
After the end of the Cold War and the establishment of a unipolar international order, many scholars came to the conclusion that “balancing” as an instrument of state policy has disappeared. This research proves the opposite. First, it undertakes theoretical analysis of the “balancing dilemma” and defines the system of independent variables which can guarantee the absence of balancing. Second, the system is tested against empirical observations concentrating upon international developments since the September 2001. Research reveals that the current unipole could satisfy only part of non-balancing conditions, which is why a policy of balancing by a secondary power became observable. Third, the case of balancing (Russian foreign policy during and after the August 2008 Russia-Georgian conflict) is investigated. Fourth, the consequences of balancing are explored.
The article is devoted to the Asia-Pacifi c Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum to be held and presided by the Russian Federation in early September 2012 in Vladivostok. The article gives the background for establishing the APEC, describes its goals and decisions adopted. It defi nes the APEC's place in the global economy as the largest association of States, which accounts for more than half of global GDP and which has set ambitious targets for establishing a free trade zone, liberalizing the investment climate and promoting regional integration. The article examines the major events in the global energy sector that triggered off the structural energy crisis in the early XXI century, causing the need for ensuring a global international energy security. The author suggests that the issue of energy security as a factor in implementing the strategic objectives of the APEC's economic and social development should be put on the agenda of the Forum. In this connection, the article analyzes the Draft Convention on Ensuring International Energy Security proposed by the Russian Federation for discussion and possible adoption. The article also puts forward several proposals for deepening regional integration to promote the development of the Far East and Siberia, and the creation of a new export base and promoting the Eastern vector of the Russian foreign economic cooperation policy.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.