Justice and Home Affairs is one of the fastest expanding areas of research in European Studies. The European response to security concerns such as terrorism, organised crime networks, and drug trafficking as well as to the challenge of managing migration flows are salient topics of interest to an increasing number of scholars of all disciplines, the media and general public. This handbook takes stock of policy development and academic research in relation to justice and home affairs and analyses the field in an unprecedented thematic depth.
The book comprehensively investigates the field from the perspective of the three dimensions central to European integration: the sectoral (policies), the horizontal (states, regions) and the vertical (institutions, decision-making) dimensions. It also discusses the most important theoretical approaches used in this research area and provides the reader with a state of the art picture of the field.
By adopting such a comprehensive and broad-based approach, the handbook is uniquely positioned to be an important referent for scholars, practitioners and students interested in the area of justice, home affairs and European politics.
The chapter examines the role of language and cultural space in shaping and/or reshaping the identity of both first- and second-generation Georgian teenage students in the state secondary school in Moscow with a Georgian ethnocultural component. By analyzing the students’ linguistic behavior in the classroom, an attempt is made to examine how students negotiate their identity and sense of belonging while outside Georgia. More specifically, this study shows how Georgian students (re)shape their identity in light of linguistic, cultural, and spatial changes taking place in the institutional settings of the Moscow school. The language of instruction in the school is Russian. However, taking into consideration the fact that the majority of the school teachers are ethnic Georgians, it appears that this has implicit (and in some cases explicit) underpinnings in relation to the students’ ethnic identity orientation. The results demonstrate that high institutional support at school as well as the students’ high sense of group belonging which is encouraged by the school’s administration and teaching staff contributes to students’ identity construction process. The evidence indicates that the blurring of ethnic and cultural identity boundaries in the context of the Russian capital city has an effect on the students’ linguistic behavior at different levels (phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon).
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
Today, the unstable political and economic situation in the world has led to an intensified migration and changes in their directions. The legal norms regarding the status of migrants, including people living with HIV, are also changing. Over the past 10 years laws restricting the entry and residence of HIV-infected foreign citizens have been repealed in many countries, but in Russia the deportation and prohibition of long-term stay of HIV positive international migrants are still in effect.
This review presents the main aspects of the impact of migration on the spread of HIV in the world and Russia, as well as the possible positive and negative effects of decriminalization of migrants living with HIV in terms of epidemic situation, socio-demographic and economic processes.
The argument for retaining the deportation is due to the potential risk of the spread of the disease by foreigners and the unresolved organization of medical care and treatment of HIV infection for foreign migrants, which are provided for Russian citizens from the state budget. On the other hand, the deportation law touches upon ethical aspects, violating freedom of movement, the right to privacy and freedom from discrimination. Despite the presence or absence of restrictive measures against HIV-positive migrants, HIV has spread throughout all countries and led to a global epidemic.
Prevention of HIV infection among general population of the country, regardless of their migration status, is a priority on the way to stop the spread of infection.
The paper examines the role of migration in Russia in achieving the government's strategic goals of population growth and ensuring natural growth by 2024. For the migration forecasting, cohort-component method and the algorithms of replacement migration are used. As a result, annual migration growth of 300-304 thousand people is required to maintain the current population size within next five years. Annual migration growth of 6.0-8.9 million people is needed to ensure natural growth. The last means that the goal will not be fulfilled.
The report provides a review of sources and quality of statistics on international migration in selected countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. The report was prepared under the responsibility of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in the framework the project “Strengthening national capacities to deal with international migration: maximizing development benefits and minimizing negative impacts”.
The Kaliningrad region stands out for its history and geographical location. In the post-war period, the region was completely repopulated. People from many parts of Russia and other republics of the former USSR were recruited to develop the new territory. Although demographic processes and migration in the Kaliningrad region have been studied in detail, we believe that census and micro-census data can significantly advance the current knowledge of this unique region. This holds true for the data relating to the results of pre-survey migration. This approach differs markedly from traditional migration studies in Russia, which rely on migration flow data, in both data sources and migration criteria employed. Our study uses the place of birth data from the 1989, 2002, and 2010 censuses and the 1994 and 2015 microcensuses. We conclude that the proportions of residents born locally and in post-Soviet Asian countries have been increasing in recent decades. At the same time, the contribution of the natives of Belarus and Ukraine to the region's population is rapidly declining, largely due to the change of generations having a different migration history.
There is probably no more serious challenge to attaining social stability and cohesion in the contemporary world than the management of intercultural relations within culturally plural societies. These goals are important to achieve because they underpin mutual acceptance and trust across cultural groups. The successful attainment of these goals depends on many factors, including a research-based understanding of the historical, political, economic, religious and psychological features of the groups that are in contact. Currently, there are unprecedented numbers of individuals and groups who live outside their countries of origin, as refugees, immigrants. And migrant workers These new arrivals have added to the diverse populations who have already settled over previous generations in these societies. In the Caribbean Region, all these phenomena are underway, and need to be examined across the states and territories of the region. The core question we all face is “How shall we all live together?”
This chapter focuses on EU justice and home affairs (JHA) policies towards its East European neighbours. Based on the analysis of the relevant policy evolutions and academic research, it shows that migration and related issues have dominated the agenda of EU JHA cooperation with these countries. The chapter underlines that EU policies have been significantly shaped by the eastward enlargement. It also emphasizes an important distinction between EU approaches to Eastern Partnership countries, on the one hand, and Russia, on the other. This is reflected in a wide range of legally binding, non-legally binding as well as operational cooperation instruments deployed by the EU in the fields of readmission, visa liberalization and border management. The chapter devotes special attention to the inherent tension between values and interests within the external dimension of EU JHA policies in the region. This tension amplifies an important challenge of coherence of EU policies in the context of an increasing competition with Russia in the shared neighbourhood.
Plus d'un quart de siècle après la fin de l'URSS, la libéralisation des prix en Russie et l'adoption de différents modèles pour les républiques d'Asie centrale ont des répercussions majeures sur le bilan de ces pays. La perte brutale des acquis socio-économiques au sein d'une population encore largement marquée par un mode de fonctionnement soviétique a vulnérabilisé des pans entiers de ces sociétés, exacerbant les inégalités. La reconfiguration des mobilités (exil, déplacements forcés, migrations économiques et environnementales) implique un jeu d'échelles nouveau qui nécessite de s'intéresser aux conditions d'origine des migrants, aux stratégies migratoires et à la recomposition de sociétés d'origine. Ces derniers sont en effet dépendants des contextes, politique et économique notamment, du pays d'accueil : la Russie. Ils sont également liés par différentes formes d'allégeance aux réseaux et aux systèmes de loyauté. Dans ces sociétés post-soviétiques, l'assurance de la survie de la communauté, de la famille, de la parentèle est à rechercher dans le retissage de normes et de réseaux encastrés qui ont préexisté à la fin de l'URSS et se sont remodelés face à de nouvelles contingences. Mais la circulation des migrants les expose à des risques sanitaires et épidémiologiques. Les enjeux de l'accès aux soins se posent de manière aiguë. Les politiques préventives concernant notamment l'infection par VIH/SIDA, les hépatites, la tuberculose sont confrontées à une disqualification du système de santé publique et s'accompagnent de situations très anxiogènes lors des migrations pour de nombreux ressortissants d'Asie centrale. Les vulnérabilités sont donc multidimensionnelles et les représentations du corps et de la maladie jouent un rôle non négligeable dans les mentalités. Aussi la santé des migrants représente-t-elle un enjeu majeur dans les républiques post-soviétiques mais aussi universel dans le monde globalisé qui les façonne.