Почему для российских школьников некоторые задания PISA оказываются труднее, чем для их зарубежных сверстников: экспериментальное исследование.
Factors connected to the results of PISA on the national level are rather well examined by now. But they are often described too generally and in correlation paradigm only and it is difficult to use the results of such studies in real educational policy. We shifted the accent from explanation of Russian students’ low results in PISA to higher difficulty of several PISA items for Russian students in comparison with students in other countries. When the question was put this way, specific flaws in skills and knowledge of Russian students came in front and became the focus of an experimental study. The results showed that higher difficulty of such items is caused mainly by their elements demanding specific subject knowledge. At the same time the elements that demand only more general cognitive skills in most cases do not cause increase of difficulty. The results show that widespread explanation of PISA results by suggestion that Russian schoolchildren have more problems with complex cognitive skills development in comparison with students in Western countries should be reconsidered.