Почему для российских школьников некоторые задания PISA оказываются труднее, чем для их зарубежных сверстников: экспериментальное исследование.
Factors connected to the results of PISA on the national level are rather well examined by now. But they are often described too generally and in correlation paradigm only and it is difficult to use the results of such studies in real educational policy. We shifted the accent from explanation of Russian students’ low results in PISA to higher difficulty of several PISA items for Russian students in comparison with students in other countries. When the question was put this way, specific flaws in skills and knowledge of Russian students came in front and became the focus of an experimental study. The results showed that higher difficulty of such items is caused mainly by their elements demanding specific subject knowledge. At the same time the elements that demand only more general cognitive skills in most cases do not cause increase of difficulty. The results show that widespread explanation of PISA results by suggestion that Russian schoolchildren have more problems with complex cognitive skills development in comparison with students in Western countries should be reconsidered.
India has a growing shortage of skilled workers—caused largely by workforce development and education systems that do not respond adequately to the economy’s needs. To contribute effectively to the innovation economy and capitalize on the growing opportunities of globalization, India’s young workforce must develop skills that are more market-driven. Given expanding trade and globalization, India’s workforce must have skills that are aligned with its transforming economy and can support the country’s continued economic growth. India’s ongoing but incomplete transformation from an agriculture - to a manufacturing - and services-based economy requires training a workforce with distinct skills for a market that increasingly rewards problem solving, communication skills, teamwork, and self-learning. Skills are needed not only by high-skill sectors but also by labor-intensive industries, which require technological developments to be absorbed by a workforce adept in basic technological literacy and key competencies.
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
This paper dwells on the importance of the elective course for first-year students who have not achieved the necessary level of language competence at school. Lack of knowledge and relevant skills becomes a bar to further progressing both in general and professional language. The paper points out the role of the elective course in developing language competence which will help students to be successful in the professional environment.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. It was first performed in 2000 and then repeated every three years. It is done with view to improving education policies and outcomes. The data has increasingly been used both to assess the impact of education quality on incomes and growth and for understanding what causes differences in achievement across nations.
Technical competencies and specific engineering skills alone are not sufficient in the modern labor market but employers expect engineers to actively promote the products they create. Engineers often perceive their skills differently than employers do. Insufficient university training in a number of fields including the development of social, management and communication skills leads to an objective and understandable gap between the perceived and the required levels of such competencies. Based on the results of a survey of 3158 engineers conducted in 2011 in the Russian Federation, the study shows a number of deficits in the perception of innovation skills and the respective demand for these.
In the public discourse, cinematic views on the analysis of movies traditionally prevail. The author suggests another approach: in the course of the experiment aimed to reveal the audience's perception of the film „Welcome to Zombieland the author discovers an atypical interpretation of this horror film as an instrument of educating the young generation, those features of the ideological message of the film that can transform any genre into, it would seem, its complete opposite - a collection of contemporary society norms and behavior patterns. The main conclusion of the article is that the perception of a film is a complex social action which always goes beyond any cinematic interpretations.
The quality of education in the United States has been heavily criticized in part because of U.S. students’ performance on international tests, such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Although simple country averages may support such criticisms, there are many problems in comparing test scores of students in the U.S. as a whole with students in countries with very different social and educational environments. Not least of these problems is that students in the United States do not attend school in a “U.S. educational system,” but rather in at least 51 different systems, many of which have experienced very significant progress over time. The most relevant lessons for improving U.S. education may therefore be found in our successful states, rather than in other countries.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.