Развитие классификации клинических диагнозов в медицинских информационных системах
This article describes development experience of the neural network system for medical diagnostic of gastrointestinal diseases. There was used patient’s practical medical information for its creation. As input parameters were taken into consideration different factor groups, include demographic, patient’s complaints, life history, medical history and additional methods of research. Neural network model allowed making a significance assessment of factors, which have disease’s development influence. As a result, was designed neural network system of differential diagnosis, allowing diagnoses “gastritis”, “peptic ulcer”. In the future, developed diagnostic system can be used as a “provisional diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases”.
This paper analyses the possibility of using mobile technologies and applications in the Russian healthcare system and evaluates the opportunities for its further development. The research provides an overview of global trends in digital healthcare with some examples of the best solutions for eHealth (healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication). An analysis is made of the Russian medical system in order to identify the main stages of its formation, achievements and areas for improvement. The authors also conducted research into the current Russian medical healthcare system aimed at identifying gaps and concerns regarding security, reliability and service availability for on-line and mobile services and personal health records in Russia. Certain diffi culties in the establishment of an up-to-date healthcare system in Russia with examples of barriers are also analyzed to get a better understanding of the prospects for mobile healthcare development. Starting from the premise that support for information technologies is essential to medical healthcare development, the paper gives an overview of the current IT initiatives of the Russian government in the fi eld of medicine and provides examples of the independent applications of Russian software developers for digital and mobile healthcare. As a result of the research, three possible development scenarios of Russian mobile healthcare are described. The barriers identifi ed as well as worldwide healthcare transformation aspects such as cost reduction and personalization are considered in the possible scenarios.
In 2016, the crude death rate from road traffic accidents in Russia decreased, according to police data, to a level not observed since 1971, after which it continued to decline. The positive trends apparently served as the basis for the optimistic goals laid down in the road safety strategy for 2018-2024.
Based on police data, state statistics on mortality and international databases on mortality and road safety, the authors try to answer these questions: Are the goals set achievable within the specified timeframe, and how consistent are they with European trends in road traffic mortality, as well as with Russia’s current differentiation of road traffic mortality by space, age and category of road users?
The study showed that the deadlines for achieving targets in the road safety strategy are very tight. Today, only large and medium-sized cities have the potential to implement a new road safety strategy in which the crude death rate should not exceed 1.5-2 deaths per 100 thousand people by 2024, whereas in small cities and rural settlements - 2.5-3 deaths per 100 thousand people. For many years, the main risk groups have been drivers and passengers aged 15-44 and pedestrians over 60, who do not appear in the road safety strategy as priority categories.
In addition, the article shows that in order to eliminate the existing discrepancies between the numbers of deaths published by the two official accounting systems (the police and Rosstat), the very first step might be for Rosstat to stop calculating the road traffic death toll based on the current brief list of causes of death and transition to one of the two international options for aggregating three-digit codes of causes of death used by the WHO.
The study described in the paper aims at multi-faceted characterization of active community question answering (CQA) users who provide answers to health-related questions. The study employs various research techniques - both qualitative (surveys) and quantitative. With two online surveys we get insights into 1. perception of online health-related information and its use by patients by medical professionals and 2. motivtion of most active CQA answerers, a significant share of which apparently constitute users with medical education. In the second series of experiments we apply topic modeling to a yearly collection of questions and answers from a popular Russian CQA servce in order to find users focused on a particular topic. Further, we attempt to find users with professional medical backround based on the lexis of their answers. The obtained results provide a beter understanding of motivation and backround of CQA users and can be used for the improvement of CQA services, as well as for solving problems such as CQA content quality evaluation, expert search, and question routing, etc.
This article proposes a method of constructing dynamic neural network mathematical models that allow not only to diagnose the disease at the current time, but also to simulate the appearance and development of diseases in future periods of time, as well as to control their appearance and development by selecting the optimal lifestyle and optimal intake of drugs. It is assumed that the use of dynamic neural network medical systems, instead of static, allow doctors, before prescribing courses of treatment to patients, to test the effect of drugs not on patients, but on their virtual mathematical models. The action of the system is demonstrated by examples.
Goal. To develop a system for differential diagnosis of rhinitis allergic and infectious etiologies. Materials and methods. Data 217 pediatric patients with infectious and allergic rhinitis were used to construct a diagnostic system based on neural network technology. Results. Created the system of the differential diagnosis, allowing using a minimal number of input parameters with high precision to make the diagnosis "infectious rhinitis and allergic rhinitis". The virtual computer experiments to assess the role of passive Smoking on the prognosis of these diseases have shown conflicting results, requiring further investigation. Conclusions. The developed diagnostic system can be used on the principle of "pre-diagnosis of allergic rhinitis without the allergist", work pediatricians, internists, General practitioners, and also for screening diagnosis in terms of "health centres".
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
The manual is intended for students of Department of computer engineering MIEM HSE. In the textbook based on the courses "Economics of firm" and "the development strategy of the organization." Discusses the key conceptual and methodological issues of the theory and practice of Economics and development planning of the organization. The use of textbooks will enable students: to analyze key performance indicators, and use the tools of strategic analysis with reference to concrete situations in contemporary Russian and international business. Special attention is paid to the methods and systems of information support of the life support functions of business organizations and management methodology of innovation and investment. An Appendix contains source data for analysis of competition in a particular industry.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.