Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни в России и факторы, влияющие на нее
This article analyzes the changes in life expectancy in Russia as a whole, and in some regions of Russia. The key factors affecting life expectancy, the authors attributed mortality of the population and the effectiveness of the health system. In the first part the authors analyzed the state of mortality in the Russian Federation from 1990 to 2013 Trends in death rates during the period indicates a steady decline since 2003-2005.
Particular attention is paid to the study of mortality in Russia by main causes in the regional aspect. Held in the stem - Stern analysis k-means possible to separate the subjects of the Russian Federation in the three clusters of mortality: low, medium and high. The most abundant of the 50 regions of the cluster is characterized by an average level of mortality. In all three clusters of deaths for reasons of circulatory diseases is the leading.
In the second part of the paper the authors analyze the differences in life expectancy, depending on the territorial jurisdiction of the region of the Russian Federation. The basis of comparison was the Moscow region as one of the leading regions for the main socio-economic indicators for 2013 other regions of the Perm region is selected as the median area specified rating. The structure of these regions as a homogeneous composition by age and by the type of population. Life expectancy in both regions increased during the period under study Inves-more than five years. Note the fact that the male population, this indicator increased more significantly.
The study authors analyzed the survival functions for changing times , various groups of the population of the Moscow region and the Perm edge in the dynamics in the period 1999-2013. A more detailed study of the changes in life expectancy for those who have reached retirement age. This issue is particularly relevant because in recent years have increasingly discussed topic of raising the retirement age.