Все вещи мира: «Совершенная энциклопедия» И.Г.Альстеда и “Пансофия» Я.А.Коменского
As Leibniz himself confessed, identifying the root of contingency raised a difficulty which concealed the distinction between necessary and contingent truths. The definition of truth based on the inherence of predicates seemed indeed to be a paradoxical and embarrassing solution to the question of the root of contingency since it began, by virtue of the sufficiency of the complete notion, by making all the predicates necessary. It is our contention that the Generales Inquisitiones provide us both with the clearest formulation of the difficulty and with its resolution. The distinguishing criterion which arises from the analogy with the mathematical infinite but includes from the start a risk of confusion has required of Leibniz a painstaking elaboration. The actual stake appears all the more clearly : liberating the principle of sufficient reason which, from being an axiom--inferred from the principle of contradiction--gains the status of architectonic principle --which is irreducible to the principle of contradiction. We will ask ourselves finally if the contingency of the best possible worlds which can then be construed from the "claim of existence" has truly been "saved" by the principle of sufficient reason.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.