THE FORMATION OF A SYSTEM OF OPEN GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA: EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS
This paper analyzes the development of forms and methods of interaction between government agencies and the experts’ community, public organizations, and citizens under the influence of a whole host of factors, including a transition to networked forms of administration; the production and exchange of big data; the dynamic development of information and communication technologies; and the development of the need for various interest groups, members of the mass media, and citizens to comment and influence government decision-making. The goal of the paper is to demonstrate that open government and increasing citizen activity is a two-way street. The paper uses the results of the monitoring by experts in 2014 of the implementation of principles and mechanisms of openness in federal executive agencies.
One of the paper’s tasks is to show that government bodies today face the extremely difficult challenge of not merely informing citizens about decisions that are made but also maintaining the smooth operation of mechanisms that are able, given the current level of social development, to ensure that the interests and expectations of as many stakeholders as possible are taken into account. The paper also analyzes issues related to streamlining the current mechanisms of openness.
The authors regard these technologies and mechanisms of openness and public participation in government administration as interconnected elements of a new, nascent model of public administration.
The 6th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV2012, was organized in Albany, New York, United States (US) from the 22nd to the 25th of October 2012, hosted by the Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, State University of New York under the patronage of the United States National Archives and Record Administration. The ICEGOV (International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance) series focuses on the use of technology to transform relationships between government and citizens, businesses, civil society and other arms of government (Electronic Governance).
This paper describes the experience of using open datasets in “Programming” course for the first-year undergraduates in Software engineering. The course is designed according to a combined approach. It contains the features of problem based learning and formative assessment. We describe and give examples of open datasets using in training and assessment task development. We also present the problems of open data application to educational process and possible ways of their solving.
The article aims to discuss practical problems and inconsistencies of industrial policy in Russia since 2000, to analyze positive and negative experiences, and to draw lessons, which are essential for the new technology-industrial policy.
The evolution of approaches to industrial policy in Russia is considered, which particularly results in convergence between the innovation and industrial policies. Basic state interest groups are revealed, whose interaction determines the industrial policy design. The authors try to make a comparison between two recent significant industrial policy examples: the automotive industry and the nanoindustry. On this basis some prerequisites for successful policies are revealed.
The following main lessons are drawn:
First. World experience shows that the requirements for industrial policy and its opportunities change significantly with time. Such policies in each country and at a given time need new ideas and solutions; it is extremely difficult to replicate the success of the industrial policies of various countries.
Second. Quite successful industrial policy examples are typically aimed at entering foreign market, becoming globally competitive, and attracting foreign investment. The implementation of industrial policy without definite and sufficient conditions for the free entry and exit of major players and without the participation of foreign partners is doomed only to simulate progress, to have strong informational asymmetry, and to create antagonist images of what is actually happening in economy in the eyes of the society and of the public authorities.
Third. The problem of correctly assessing the scientific and technological potential is of great importance for the technological-industrial policy implementation. Numerous assessments appear to be unreliable since they do not take into account changes in business demand for technology. The tendency to use the legacy of past decades sometimes becomes a political problem, blocking some new approaches and the development of international technology cooperation.
Forth. A negative attitude towards particular policies should not be regarded as a “taboo” against studying the related issues. The fact that for a long time in Russia it has been as if “there were no kind of industrial policy” led to the low quality of both industrial policy and its research.
Keywords: ; science, technology and innovation policy; priority industries; priority technologies; interest groups; state institutions.
This paper discusses holistic approach to the evaluation of the public agencies openness based on authors’ research in Russia. Openness in this paper is understood as new paradigm for governance which comprises certain tools and methods as well as evaluation criteria for them. The measurement framework comprises evolution levels for the open government tools. The framework may serve as a self-survey evaluation pattern for the public agency. The openness evaluation framework presumes further participation in evaluation both for the experts and the society.
Author – the protagonist of Karl Popper’s critical rationalism – considers critically Karl Popper’s philosophy of open society.Subject of the article contains: 1) risks and contretemps of methodological individualism; 2) risks of social development ignored by Popper’s philosophy of open society; 3) author’s conception of human, social and governmental openness.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.