Examining Self-Advantage in the Suffering of Others: Cross-Cultural Differences in Beneficiary and Observer Justice Sensitivity among Chinese, Germans, and Russians
Other-related concerns for justice are fundamental components of morality and interpersonal behaviors. In this paper, we investigated macro/cultural and micro/individual differences in justice concerns for others. More specifically, beneficiary sensitivity (BS) and observer sensitivity (OS) were compared across China as a typical collectivist society, and Germany and Russia as two individualistic societies. Individualism–collectivism was assumed to mediate the cultural variance of BS and OS. In Study 1, Chinese participants exhibited more BS but less OS compared to German participants. In Study 2, the Chinese participants exhibited more BS but not significantly different OS compared to Russian participants. Moreover, collectivism mediated this cultural difference in BS but not OS. In Study 3, collectivist participants identified according to their proposals in social value games exhibited more BS than did individualistic participants, while the two groups revealed no significant difference in OS. Taken together, our studies consistently show that higher collectivism both on the cultural and individual levels is related to BS but not to OS, suggesting that collectivist values make people sensitive to selfadvantage in comparison to the suffering of others.
This book includes articles written by the participants of the First International conference "Methods of teaching oriental languages", lead by the School of Asian Studies of NRU Higher School of Economics. Presented conferecne proceedings focus on the current problems of studying and teaching oriental languages, such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean. The articles address such issues as methodology, translation studies and intercultural interaction within the classroom.
The monograph presents a scientific and theoretical edition and devoted to the problem of polysemy with a cognitive-semantic context, in particular, complex, not single metaphors and their cognitive heuristic function. The study is based on further development and elaboration of the theory of custody schemes of J. Lakoff and M. Johnson, and considers a metaphor as a tool for systemic understanding of deep conceptual spheres, giving the structural cohesion to the human experience. Cognitive approach to the scientific study assumes that the entire role in the formation of language values belongs to the person as a participant of communication, the observer and the media of knowledge and some experience.
The article describes a scale fit for evaluation of tendencies towards authoritarian ideologies. It is constructed on the basis of a system of alternative judgements fixing respondents' agreement by the following axes: collectivism/individualism; hostility/amicability of the surrounding world; equality of relationships with the surrounding world; inclination/opposition to acceptance of absolute authorities; negation/acceptance of universality of moral norms. Authoritarianism indices are presented, calculated for various social groups, proceeding from materials of two mass representative surveys conducted by VCIOM ('Culture', June 1992, and the monitoring, May 1994). The level of authoritarianism sufficiently depends on such factors as the age, education level, status of respondents, the form of propriety of organizations where they work, as well as the degree of adaptedness to the present socio-political situation, and ideological attitudes. Comparison of the two surveys has shown that at present the population of Russia is more strongly attracted by authoritarianisn than liberal notions. On the average in the sample, the correlation of 'authoritarian' and 'not authoritarian' was 3:2.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.